|AICCIP Research Highlights : 2004 - 05|
Dr. Paramatma Singhji, Hon'ble Vice-Chancellor, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner releases AICCIP Annual Report also seen are Dr. K. C. Jain, Assitant Director General (commercial crop) Dr. Phundan Singh, Acting Director CICR, Dr. T P Rajendran, Project Coordinator(Cotton Improvement) & Head
AICCIP - PROCEEDINGS OF THE GROUP MEETING
The Group Meeting of All India Coordinated Cotton Improvement Project (AICCIP) was held at Agricultural Research Station, Rajasthan Agricultural University Sriganganagar from 7th to 9th April, 2005. The meeting was inaugurated by Dr. Paramatma Singhji, Hon'ble Vice-Chancellor, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner. The Project Coordinator presented the salient activities and progress of research under AICCIP. Dr.P.Singh, Director, Central Institute for Cotton Research delivered Keynote Speech in which he reiterated the importance of quality fiber for the country's requirements for the export market. He commended the achievement of increase in production and productivity during the last Kharif season. Dr.Paramatma Singhji, in his inaugural speech explained the need for conservation of natural resources in cotton cultivation so as to provide sustainability to the cotton cropping system in different agro-climates. The supply and demand based market fluctuations of price for seed cotton is anticipated and so the best course shall be to reduce the cost of cultivation. He exhorted AICCIP scientists to work together to bring out newer directions to cotton growers of the country in achieving the raw material production to supply the domestic industries.
Dr.K.C.Jain, Assistant Director General (Commercial Crops) congratulated the AICCIP scientists for achieving 440 kg/ha productivity through the bumper cotton crop during 2004 season. He said that the Technology Mission on Cotton has targeted a modest 420 kg/ha by end of 10th Five year plan. However, with this momentum, it is sure that we can touch 500 kg/ha by the end of this plan period. He emphasized the need for reorienting our research priorities towards reducing the cost of cultivation as well as for effective crop management without much pressure from pests and diseases. He appealed to the private R & D to provide effective steps to provide farmers with pest and disease tolerant cotton hybrids. The textile industry has been blaming the production about the multiplicity of varieties that provide lint with varying fibre properties and cannot be cogently used in fabric production. The R & D from private systems shall ponder over the issue of reducing number of hybrids from over 500 to reasonable limits. While introducing hybrids to newer locations and zones, care may be taken to study their adaptiveness and production potential under average resource conditions, since majority of cotton farmers have average resources only. He thanked the Vice Chancellor for offering all the infrastructure of RAU for conducting the AICCIP Group Meeting.
The Group meeting provided the following general recommendations:
1. Pink bollworm management, based on male moth catch in early crop stage as well as through larvae in green bolls at peak fruiting period, has to be recommended to farmers and advisory system of the state including KVKs, by adopting suitable insecticide spraying. Selection of molecule and dosage shall be done by centres according to population threshold in all zones. Mass trapping in market yards and shandies, where cotton trading took place during the last season as well as cleaning up their premises of all seed cotton residues have to be instituted.
2. Farmers shall select cotton varieties and hybrids that have tolerance to sap sucking pests to avoid pesticide application till 45-50 days of crop growth.
3. Since most of the private hybrids including Bt hybrids have no resistance to common diseases such as Bacterial blight, Grey mildew or Alternaria blight, the farmers are advised to take up suitable prophylactic plant protection using recommended fungicides such as streptocycline + Copper oxychloride (for Bacterial blight) @ 2 kg/ha, carbendazim (for Grey mildew), mancozeb @ 1.25 kg/ha for Alternaria leaf blight.
4. In Integrated nutrient management 50% recommended dose of NPK + 10 t FYM + foliar spray of nutrients gave significantly higher seed cotton yield at all the centres of the three zones indicating that soil health can be maintained with standard practices such as green manuring, followed by maintaining organic carbon content of the soil with application of farmyard manure or compost. Foliar nutrition gave significantly higher seed cotton yield over control in central zone. The tune of increase in yield was 15 to 25% over control.
5. For arboreum cotton NPK @ 40:25:15 kg + FYM 10 t/ha is recommended. This will save 50% NPK fertilizer of existing recommendation at Khandwa.
6. Intercropping of potato in cotton can be beneficially grown with paired row planting or cotton + potato (1:1) row ratio increases total net returns and B:C ratios as compared to sole cotton under assured rainfall conditions at Dharwad.
7. Among the different oil seeds used for intercropping in cotton, sunflower with cotton in 2:1 or 3:1 row ratio improves the net returns of cotton cultivation and B:C ratio under assured rainfall conditions of Dharwad whereas intercropping of sesame with cotton into 1:3 ratio was found to be optimum with higher cotton yield and more B:C ratio at Siruguppa.
The combined session of Breeding panel was held in the afternoon session on 07-04-05 and in the forenoon on 08-04-05 for finalizing both the national as well as the zonal breeding trials. The sessions were chaired by Dr. K. C. Jain, Assistant Director General (Commercial Crops), and the co-chairmen of the sessions were Dr. T. P. Rajendran (Project Coordinator), Dr. G.S.F.Hussain (CIRCOT) and Dr. B. M. Khadi (Principal Investigator - Plant Breeding). The panelists were Shri A. Kannan and Dr. S. Manickam (CICR, Regional Station, Coimbatore). The rapporteurs were Dr. S. S. Siwach, Dr. G. K. Koutu and Dr. P. Ravikesavan. Dr. P. Singh, Director, CICR, Nagpur joined the session on 08-04-05. The session started with the opening remarks of the Chairman followed by that of the Principal Investigator. Initially the National trials were finalized followed by the Zonal trials (North, Central and South). As suggested by the participants, the conventional and MS based hybrid trials at zonal level were merged and to be conducted as one trial. This suggestion was accepted by the Chairman and accordingly trials were formulated.
Agronomy, Physiology & Biochemistry Panel
The Agronomy Panel meeting of AICCIP was held in the afternoon session on 07-04-05 and in the forenoon on 08-04-05 for finalizing the Agronomy, Physiology and Biochemistry trials. The sessions were chaired by Dr. M. P. Sahu, Director Research, RAU, Bikaner, former Director M. S. Kairon, CICR, Nagpur, Dr. R. N. Goswami, Zonal Director Research, ARS, Sriganganagar and co-chaired by Dr. B. S. Yadav, Professor (Soil Science), ARS, Sriganganagar.
Salient Research Findings
- The salient findings of various experiments conducted at AICCIP centres are as under:
- At Sriganganagar conventional practice adopted by farmers gave significantly highest pooled seed cotton yield (2424 kg/ha) followed by combined application of pendimethalin @ 1.5 or 1 kg a.i./ha along with one hoeing at 35 DAS was recorded over that of control and lower doses of pendimethalin. Lower number of weeds and weed dry matter was recorded in the said treatments in comparison to control. Weed free check recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield followed by hand weeding twice, which was at par with trifloxysulfuron 7.5 g/ha, galaxy 2.0 lit/ha and galaxy 2.5 lit/ha at Srivilliputhur.
- At Hisar hirsutum variety H-1242 gave significantly higher seed cotton yield over H-1236 with 80 kg N/ha.
- In Integrated nutrient management 50% recommended dose of NPK + 10 t FYM + foliar spray of nutrients gave significantly higher seed cotton yield at Ludhiana, Faridkot, Nanded and Junagadh. Application of RD of NPK + 5 to 10 t FYM/ha seems to be better at Kanpur, Khandwa, Rahuri, Indore, Akola, Bhawanipatna, Lam, Nandyal, Coimbatore and Srivilliputhur and 50 % RDF + sun hemp in-situ incorporation + foliar spray of 2% DAP or urea were found optimum in sustaining higher cotton productivity at Dharwad.
- At Indore foliar nutrition gave significantly higher seed cotton yield over control. The tune of increase in yield was 15 to 25% over control. So far as net income is concerned the application of 2% each of urea and DAP at flowering and boll development stage was found more remunerative (Rs. 10864/ha) and lowest under control (RS. 8523/ha).
- At Lam use of organics only FYM, crop residue and in-situ green manuring alone or in combination does not substitute the use of 100% chemical fertilizers. However, among the organics combinations the FYM @ 5 t/ha + crop residues @ 2.5 t/ha + IGM of sun hemp followed by crop residue @ 2.5 t/ha + IGM and FYM alone were found superior over the rest combination. FYM + vermicompost at Nandyal and FYM @ 10 t/ha has produced significantly higher seed cotton yield at Dharwad.
- Split application of N & K produced significantly higher seed cotton yield as compared to other treatments, further among the time of application of nutrients at basal 25%, 30 DAS (50%) and 60 DAS (25%) produced significantly higher seed cotton yield as compared to rest of the top dressing at Siruguppa.
- Studies on the effect of macro and micronutrients on cotton revealed that application of recommended NPK dose is useful at various locations of North zone although soil application of sulphur at Kanpur and Zn application at Sriganganagar were beneficial for higher yield realization.
- Integrated nutrient management in cotton under cotton-chickpea crop sequence at Rahuri shows that maximum seed cotton yield, maximum net monetary returns 15668 Rs./ha and highest B:C ratio 1.59 was recorded with FYM @ 5 t/ha + GM of dhaincha in-situ + Azotobacter + Azospirillum + PSB (seed treatment) closely followed by FYM @ 5 t/ha + GM dhaincha in-situ.
- Use of farm waste and papers for covering the soil, improved the growth yield parameters yield and water use efficiency of cotton at Coimbatore.
- Intercropping of oil seeds in cotton shows that intercropping of sunflower in cotton with 2:1 or 3:1 ratio increases the net returns under assured rainfall condition of Dharwad whereas cotton + Sesame (3:1 ratio) produced significantly higher total yield than other intercropping system at Siruguppa.
- Cotton + clusterbean 1:1 ratio fertilized with 125% of RDF produced maximum seed cotton yield and also benefit cost ratio at Rahuri.
- Neither nitrogen levels nor time of its application had any significant effect on yield and other characters. This supports that to cotton 75 kg N/ha should be applied in two splits at thinning and flowering at Ludhiana.
- Foliar application of 0.5% KNO3 after 25 days of last rainfall increased seed cotton yield by 20% or more at Surat and Parbhani whereas foliar spray CaCl2 and KCL resulted in increased seed cotton yield under rainfed condition of Dharwad compared to other osmoprotectants used.
- Screening for water stress tolerance indicated that nine genotypes gave significantly higher yield than national check LRA-5166, Indam-178, GK-147, L-761 and 761 were high yielding under stress as well as at par compared to respective irrigated control at Surat.
- GJHV-370, L-761 and Pusa-9217 genotypes registered higher growth rate/LAI accompanied by greater biomass and/or HI and the yield at Surat.
- In biochemistry the lines screened for antibiosis mechanism for bollworm and sucking pests. The tolerant/resistant like CNH-120 MB, Abadhita, Sahana and CPD-745 have exhibited higher concentration of tannin, total phenol and orthodihydroxy phenol than susceptible genotypes at Dharwad.
- At Hisar it can be inferred that high contents of protein and sugar increased palatability and serve as nutrients for bollworm larvae and high contents of phenol and tannin and carpel wall be less susceptible to bollworms and other sucking pests.
- Arboreum hybrid RAJDH-9 should be planted as 67.5 x 60 cm spacing with 40 kg P2O5 at Sriganganagar
The Entomology Panel meeting was held on 7th and 8th April, 2005 under the chairmanship of Dr. O.P. Vaish, former Cotton Entomologist, Sriganganagar and co-chaired by Dr. T.P. Rajendran (Project Coordinator) and Dr. T. Suruli Velu, Principal Investigator, (Entomology). Dr. B.B. Bhosle and J. Padhi acted as rapporteurs. A total number of 32 Entomologists from different Institutions have actively participated in discussion.
Salient Research Findings
- Status of pest dynamics in cotton crop was monitored in the centers of the three zones during 2004-05 Kharif season. In the northern cotton growing states, Jassid population was above ETL level from 1st week of August to 1st week of October and Whitefly was at low level in all the regions except Sriganganagar where it was above ETL level from 3rd week of August to 1st week of October. In the Central Zone, Jassid population was above ETL in August-September months in Akola, during November in Bhawanipatna and low to moderate level in rest of the regions. Whitefly was below ETL in all the centers. In Southern region, Jassid population was above ETL level from mid September to early November in Dharwad and during the first 3 weeks of October in Lam, Guntur, while it was low to moderate level in Raichur and Coimbatore. Thrips and whitefly were at low level in all the centers of south zone.
- All the three bollworms were at low level in all the centers except in IARI, New Delhi where Pink bollworm was at higher level from 1st week of September to 1st week of November. Pink bollworm was at very high level in Akola (up to 2.86/boll), Surat (12 to 16/20 plants) and Khandwa from November to mid-January. At Hisar, incidence of Spodoptera litura was high during October. American bollworm was at moderate level in all the centres. However, it crossed ETL in September at Akola. Arias bollworm peak was observed in November at Akola & Surat, and in September at Khandwa. Moderate to high level of American bollworm incidence was observed from late August to mid-November at Dharwad, from September to December in Raichur, from mid October to mid December in Lam and from late October to mid December in Coimbatore. Arias bollworm was at moderate level in Coimbatore and Raichur during November and December months. Pink bollworm was at higher level almost in all the centres from November to January. It was 11.5 to 43.5 per 20 bolls in Dharwad, 5 to 10/5 plants in Coimbatore, 0.9 to 2.0 per boll in Raichur and 0.3 to 1.6 per boll in Lam.
- Monitoring with Pheromone traps: Male moth catches of Pink Bollworm and Spodoptera were at high numbers in Lam. There was an increasing trend in trapping of Arias adults at Dharwad.
- Evaluation of efficacy of insecticides against sap sucking pests: Polo 50 SC (diafenthiuron) and clothianidin 50 WDG were found effective in reducing the whitefly population. Foliar application of Confidor 350 SC, Confidor 70 WG and clothianidin 50 WDG were found effective against jassid, whitefly, and aphid.
- Evaluation of efficacy of insecticides against bollworms: Spinosad (75 &100g), NNI 0001, E237, KN 128, RIL 038 and Karate Zion 5 CS were found effective against bollworm complex in all the centres except Khandwa, Nagpur and Nandyal where Spinosad alone was effective.
- Evaluation of different modules for integrated pest management (IPM): IPM modules were tested with Bt. Hybrid, conventional hybrid and open pollinated varieties in all the centers and were found effective in reducing the pest infestation and in increasing the seed cotton yield. IPM fields had more natural enemies and showed high cost benefit ratio.
for pest tolerance of advance stage breeding cultures: Many cultures
tolerant to jassid and moderately tolerant to bollworms were identified.
The Project Co-ordinator emphasized at the outset about the fast changing pest scenario in different parts of the country. He has drawn the attention of Entomologists regarding the emerging threat from Pink bollworm. He stressed upon the need for developing sound screening protocols and pest forecasting models by appropriate application of forecasting tool.
Plant Pathology Panel
The Plant Pathology Panel meeting was held on 7th and 8th April 2005 at the Agricultural Research Station, (RAU), Sriganganagar. The session was chaired by Dr. P. Chidambaram, Principal Investigator (Plant Pathology) and Principal Scientist, CICR, Coimbatore and co-chaired by Dr. Dilip Monga, Head, CICR-Regional Station, Sirsa.
Salient Research Findings
- Cotton leaf curl disease is again a major disease of North zone with the maximum incidence of 90.0% in Sriganganagar area and to a less extent in Faridkot. It was significant note that the whitefly (vector) population was also higher in Sriganganagar over other North zone locations.
- The losses in seed cotton yield due to CLCuV infection at 2-4 grades ranged between 35 to 54 per cent. Similarly, early onset of the disease at 45 DAS caused 59-65 per cent loss in susceptible genotypes.
- Several H x H hybrids and G. hirsutum lines showing resistance to CLCuD (grade 0 and 1) have been identified through field screening.
- Grey mildew followed by Alternaria leaf spot and Bacterial blight were the major diseases of central and south zones.
- The Pune centre has identified 16 G. herbaceum lines received from different centres of Gujarat having resistance to Fusarium wilt
- Use of dust formulations of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-1 and CHAO strains as seed treatment @ 10 g/kg seed followed by foliar spray @ 0.2% at 30, 60 and 90 DAS gave good control of Alternaria leaf spot, Grey mildew and Bacterial blight diseases in Central and South zones.
- The per cent incidence of foliar diseases namely Grey mildew, Alternaria leaf spot and Bacterial blight were almost identical on both Bt and Non-Bt cotton hybrids in the Central and South zone Bt hybrid trials.
Source : Proceedings of the AICCIP, 2004-05