PROJECT CO-ORDINATOR'S REPORT : 2004 - 05

Introduction

Cotton season of 2004-05 broke many a records in the country. The present figures of harvest are 23.2 million bales of lint from 8.76 m ha of the three zones. The fibre productivity has crossed 436 kg ha-1. The record was broken in the crash in market price to the extent of about 40-60% of last year's price in different categories of lint. Although it is a 'cotton year' due to the enhanced area by 15.2% production by 31% and productivity by 14% over last year, the disillusionment that is set in regard to poor market support was disquieting. The cotton growers with average land holding of less than one hectare are in the aftershocks of rock bottom price for the seed cotton during this year in different parts of the country. The northern states, once again, produced high fibre yield in the absence of serious bollworm outbreak as well as due to increase in area by 14%. The zone witnessed the spurt in hybrid cotton area during this season. Punjab had over 35% and Haryana cotton growers cultivated over 11% and increased the state's area by 24,000 ha. The sudden surge in the cultivation of hybrid cotton was on the sentiments of cultivating Bt cotton hybrids; although not released for northern states; the four cotton hybrids possessing with Cry 1A (c) gene for imparting bollworm resistance were cultivated in other two zones. During this year, these two zones had about 0.5 million ha of Bt cotton cultivation.

Supply and demand position of cotton lint

The opening stock 21 lakh bales of this year. The domestic consumption for mill, small scale industry & non-mill of last year was 19.8 million bales. Import of 0.06 million bales was done. A crop production of 23.2 million bales from 8.69 million hectares was estimated by Cotton Advisory Board (CAB) as on 22nd March 2005. Thus the productivity is estimated to be 440 kg lint/ha, which has increased by about 14% over last year. There is a marked boost in the productivity of many states during this year.

Season and Climate

The climatological details of major centres are given in the ensuing pages. Rain in August to October was seen in North zone except in Sri Ganganagar. This reduced irrigation frequency. The rainfall peaked to the unusual maximum in Surat, causing damage to crop. Junagadh experienced poor rainfall in October, affecting the fibre maturation. In Khandwa, the rainfall declined from July to October. Akola experienced the third successive drought and had poor crop growth and development of bolls. Rahuri endured heavy rains (>200 mm) in September and damaged the crop considerably. In south zone, all centres had equitable distribution of rains except in Nandyal. Although Guntur had heavy rainfall in September, the crop damage was less. The crop in this centre suffered badly due to dry conditions. In certain instances, due to heavy October rains, winter cotton in Coimbatore suffered. Based on the rainfall, the maximum and minimum temperature followed normal patterns during the season. The pest build up was never enormous in any zone and favoured a good harvest of the crop in general.
Pests and diseases

In general, the country had a moderate bollworm incidence and damage. The situation in northern states was never alarming. Punjab had low to moderate population of American bollworm while the Spotted bollworm was seen in the low levels only. There was, however, the high build up of Pink bollworm in this zone. In South zone, the Pink bollworm dominated the crop fields although Spotted bollworm had spurts of population build up in 1-3 peaks in dry lands as well as in coastal area. The late season aphid infestation did not adversely affect the quality of crop harvest in central India.

The outbreak of Alternaria leaf blight and Grey mildew disease in central and south zones was significant, especially in hybrids such as Bunny and certain Bt hybrids. The critical damage of these diseases at peak boll formation stage was quite threatening, while adequate pre-emptive control measures were taken by AICCIP by alerting the local State Agricultural Departments. In north zone, the Cotton Leaf Curl Virus disease has been moderate. Many hybrids that were introduced in Punjab for the first time were seen to be infected. The CICR took up a meeting of CLCu V disease experts to review the standards for evaluation of genotypes for screening genotypes.

Monitoring Teams Report

AICCIP gives utmost importance to monitoring of all trials by ICAR teams as well as PC and PIs. Six teams were constituted to monitor the AICCIP trials in different parts of the country in the three Zones. These teams visited all the centres (including voluntary centres of SAUs as well as Private R&D set up). They monitored AICCIP trials, Breeders Seed Production and FLDs too. PC's visit to centres mostly preceded their visit so that the opinion and observations of these teams stands confirmed.

Zone/state Observations of monitoring team Action
North The team has observed that the spacing of 67.5 x 45.0 cm for accommodating larger plant population seems to increase pest incidence and suggested for a re-look of the spacing in this zone.

High incidence of whitefly population has been observed in all agronomic trial plots at all centres.

The spacing with regard to hybrid trials needs review.

 

Suitable plant protection to contain whitefly population with the help of Entomologist is to be done.

Maharashtra In MPKV, Jalgaon and MAU, Parbhani, only two replications were laid out in 5b-1, 5b-2 trials. General sap sucking population is very high in this state. Brown spots and mosaic discolouyration of upper young leaves as suspected to be Boron deficiency was observed.  
Gujarat and Karnataka Poor management of BR05aII allotted to M/S Western Agri (P) ltd. stands vitiated Dropped from data compilation
Andhra Pradesh and Orissa

Few private R&D set up did not care to show trials to the team.

Poor management of BR05aII allotted to M/S Vibha Agro Tech, US Agri Seeds, & Nimkar Seeds and stands vitiated.
Provision of border rows in all the trials
All replications should be in the same fields.
All the replications shall be in the same field
The trials shall be only recommended fertilizer and pesticide doses, as per the local SAU recommendations in all the breeding trials. The Agronomists, Entomologists and Pathologists shall be involved in this regard.
Growing Pink bollworm in these states shall be attended to.

The voluntary centres are mandated to show trials to the team.

All AICCIP scientists as well a private R&D system shall note these points in the contry and follow only standard practices of experimentation, lest their data shall be treated as vitiated.

PB rope shall be used, under the guidance of Entomologists, in all AICCIP experiments to ward of these pests. This may be followed at all AICCIP centgres as a routine practice.

The different teams visited majority of the trials and submitted the reports. Based on the teams' recommendations, data, from locations, where vitiation of results was expected, have been excluded from compilation and indicated below the respective tables as foot note. The overall emphasis is to undertake all experiments with utmost care and diligence so as to generate useful data that shall lead to concrete inference.

Cost of cultivation

There has been a reduction in cost of cultivation, mainly due to the reduction in pest incidence and damage during 2K4 season. The cotton cultivators have taken advantage of the dry conditions to harvest good quality cotton. The pest load in the crop was not alarming to warrant high investment on plant protection. Most states had ended up with a maximum average spray of 4-6 numbers against various pests.

Quality of Indian Cotton

The buoyant export boom in the country for this year calls for a jubilant industrial satiation of good quality raw material that has been produced during last season. The current quality of cotton that was harvested in this season is able to meet the existing demands of processors.

The AICCIP centres have followed the fibre quality norms provided Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT), Mumbai, as advised by the industry. This was followed rigidly in the selection of new breeding materials as well as genetic materials for further breeding. The country's need of the hour is a maximum quantity for 40s and 50s count cotton with specified micronarie, elongation percent and Uniformity ratio that would reduce under-spinning and effective raw materials utilization by the industry. The synergy of research work in AICCIP that has been attained to achieve cotton varieties and hybrids with such quality standards through Mini Mission I programmes of Technology Mission on Cotton and NATP projects for hybrids has led to rich materials in all AICCIP centers. Industry-research interaction meeting at CICR resulted in the showcasing of these developments and appreciation of the industry. AICCIP is expected to bring out new cultivars only under these guidelines.

Private Sector Participation

It is very interesting to note that more that 45 private seed companies, that have recognition of the Department of Science and Industrial Research under Ministry of Science and Technology, have been offering their hybrids for national trials and those that are qualifying to be forwarded are entering the respective AICCIP trials. These companies also have now to take cognizance of the CIRCOT norms, while entering in the AICCIP trials in order to unify process of development of raw material for the industry in addition to tolerance/resistance to pests and diseases that are prevalent in each zone to which they target their genotypes. The opening up for the AICCIP participation by private R & D houses has led to awareness about the raw material's quality requirement. It also encouraged them to weed out those untested hybrids that were widely marketed. They could maintain a good vigil on the marketing of spurious seeds and F2s by taking recourse of appropriate measures, available in the country. Recent information from the seed industry sows that more than 550 hybrids are marketed by over 70 companies. This warrants serious look at the fibre quality of the seed cotton produced from them.

Transfer of Technology

Frontline demonstration and Implement demonstration

The All India Coordinated Cotton Improvement Project (AICCIP) acts as the Nodal Agency for conducting the cotton Front Line Demonstration (FLD) programmed in the country to undertake demonstrations of frontier technologies of cotton production through funding from Mini Mission-II (ICDP) of Technology Mission on Cotton from Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. The Project Coordinator (Cotton Improvement) coordinates and monitors the implementation of the FLD Programme at its Headquarters at the Central Institute for Cotton Research, Regional Station, Coimbatore. The FLDs are organized through network centres of the AICCIP network spread over ten cotton-growing states. Besides, Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur and its regional station at Sirsa also participated actively in the programme. Frontline demonstrations were undertaken in 4 northern centres, 6 central zones centres and three south zone centres (13 centres). The integrated nutrient and pest management concepts were the mainstay of these programmes in addition to demonstration of high yielding varieties/hybrids. Introduction of G. arboreum variety Jawahar Tapti among the rainfed cotton of Tamil Nadu and has attracted larger attention of farmers and the concerned SAU.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation, Government of India sanctioned Rs. 55 lakhs for organizing 500 Front Line Demonstrations in all the cotton growing states of the country during the cropping season of 2002-2003. In the North zone, 90 FLDs in PAU, HAU, CICR, Sirsa and MPUAT, Banswara were conducted. In the Central Zone, 235 FLDs in GAU, JNKVV, PDKV, MAU, MPKV, OUAT, CICR, Nagpur were done. In South zone, 115 FLDs were organized by ANGRAU, UAS and TNAU. The details are given elsewhere in this report. The AICCIP centres also were involved in the Implement demonstrations. An allocation of Rs 45 lakhs was used for the purpose of procurement of useful implements that reduce drudgery and increase speed of operations as well as bring in reduction of cost of cultivation.

Core Implementation Committee (CIC) and Monitoring Committee (MC):
As decided in the last AGM of AICCIP, the Core Implementation Committee as well as Monitoring Committee were instituted by four SAUs during this year. PAU, JNKVV, Navsari Agricultural University and Dr. PDKV have instituted this system in different formats. Other centres are in the process of implementing this soon.

The FLDs offer a good opportunity for closer interaction between Scientists of different disciplines and the extension officials of cotton growing states. The coordinating centres organize Krishi Melas during the cropping season for highlighting the major achievements, packages of practices and newer technologies ready for transfer to farmers' fields. This has facilitated better feedback from the cotton farmers to the scientists.

Linkages with other Ministries, departments and user agencies

The issue of multiplicity of varieties and contamination of cotton fiber was actively discussed in various for a including the CAB meetings. The Committee that was constituted by CAB for identifying the cotton cultivars to be recommended for denotification submitted its report. The Directorate of Cotton Development of Ministry of Agriculture discussed this and it was suggested by the Project Co-ordinator that the ICDP funding through TMC Mini Mission II shall be only to those whose Breeders seed is produced. This is based on the fact that these are the only cultivars that have a stable and official demand for large scale cultivation in every zone. The AICCIP had intimate interaction with MINI MISSION III & IV of TMC. It was in constant touch with Indian Cotton Mills Federation, East India Cotton Association, Prominent ginners and trading organizations, Oilseed crusher's Association, Marketing Federations etc.

General Policy issues

Trading after post-harvest processing:

The problems of plenty in terms of higher production and falling prices at crucial harvest time in the three zones need to be looked at. The operation of Minimum Support Price (MSP) is through Cotton Corporation of India nationally and by Maharashtra Cooperative Cotton Growers Marketing Federation in Maharashtra. However, the operations of CCI in all other states are not commensurate with the volume cotton production. This leads to non-efficacy of MSP. Recent move to fix MSP based on lint quality may help growers better; however, the instrument-based quality evaluation shall remove all potential errors which shall not exceed the built in bias of the present system of hand-grading.

Notification and denotification of cotton genotypes for cultivation:

Name of Variety
Species
State for which released
Developed by
37th meeting of the Central Subcommittee on Crop standards, Notification and Release of varieties of Agricultural Crops
Veena G.arboreum variety Andhra Pradesh ANGRAU, Mudhol
PKV DH-1 Intra arboreum hybrid Maharashtra Dr.PDKV, Akola
PKV Hy.5 Intra hirsutum hybrid (CMS) Maharashtra Dr.PDKV, Akola
NH.545 G.hirsutum variety Maharashtra MAU, Nanded
Parbhani Turab (PA.255) G.herbaceum variety Maharashtra MAU, Parbhani
Pratap Kapi (RBDV.7) G.herbaceum variety Rajasthan MPKVV, Banswara
39th meeting of the Central Subcommittee on Crop standards, Notification and Release of varieties of Agricultural Crops
CSHH.198 Intra-hrisutum hybrid Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan CICR, Sirsa
CISAA.2 Intra arboreum hybrid Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan CICR, Sirsa

Denotification:

The following 17 genotypes of Maharashtra and eight from Karnataka have been denotified during this year.
Since under the new Seed Act, the seeds of the extant varieties have to be preserved in NBPGR, the breeders of respective institutions of these denotified genotypes may sent pure seeds of respective genotypes to PC's office immediately. The PC (Cotton) has been made responsible for the collection and preservation in NBPGR of all the denotified cotton genotypes, henceforth and all centres shall make sure that while moving their respective states to send proposals for denotification of their genotypes, they have to simultaneously deposit purse seeds of these genotypes for preservation in NBPGR.

Name of Variety
Species
State for which released
Developed by
37th meeting of the Central Subcommittee on Crop standards, Notification and Release of varieties of Agricultural Crops
AK.277 G.arboreum Maharashtra Dr.PDKV, Akola
AK.235 G.arboreum Maharashtra Dr.PDKV, Akola
AKH.4 G.arboreum Maharashtra Dr.PDKV, Akola
CJ.73 G.arboreum Maharashtra -
Gaorani-22 G.arboreum Maharashtra -
Rohini (NA-48) G.arboreum Maharashtra MAU, Nanded
Godavari (NHH.1) Intra hirsutum hybrid Maharashtra MAU, Nanded
Purnima (NH.239) G.hirsutum variety
Maharashtra MAU, Nanded
Nagnath (PH.93) G.hirsutum variety Maharashtra MAU, Nanded
Namdeo (PA.141) G.arboreum Maharashtra MAU, Parbhani
NHH.302 Intra hirsutum hybrid Maharashtra MAU, Nanded
PHA.46 G.arboreum Maharashtra MAU, Parbhani
Jyoti (CC-1-1-3) - Maharashtra -
Nimbkar-1 G.hirsutum Maharashtra Nimkar Seeds Pvt. Ltd.
MECH.11 G.hirsutum Maharashtra Mahybco seeds Pvt Ltd.
MECH.4 G.hirsutum Maharashtra Mahybco seeds Pvt Ltd.
MDCH.201 - Maharashtra -
40th meeting of the Central Subcommittee on Crop standards, Notification and Release of varieties of Agricultural Crops
JKHy.1 (SO No.19(E) dated 14.01.1982) intra hirsutum hybrid Orissa JNKVV, Khandwa
Raichur.5 (SO No.499 (E) dated 8.7.1983) G.hirsutum Karnataka UAS, Raichur
Laxmi (SO No.4045 24.9.1969, 540 (E) 24.7.1985, 5505 dated 20.10.1971) G.hirsutum Karnataka UAS, Dharwad
Hampi (SO No.5505 dated 20.10.1971) G.hirsutum Karnataka UAS, Dharwad
Sowbhagya
(DS.59) (SO No. 499 (E) dated 8.7.1983)
G.hirsutum Karnataka UAS, Dharwad
Arunabha (JK.119) (SO No.639 (E) dated 17.8.1990) G.hirsutum Karnataka UAS, Dharwad
Bhagya (GS.23) (SO No.13 (E) dated 19.12.1978) G.hirsutum Karnataka UAS, Dharwad
Sharada (CPD-8-1) (SO No.19 (E) dated 14.01.1982) G.hirsutum Karnataka UAS, Dharwad

Linkages with other Research efforts

The Mini Mission-I of Technology Mission on Cotton operated 23 projects across 8 programmes during last year in the 28 centres. During last year, under National Agricultural Technology Project, there were 4 Mission-Mode Projects, seven projects for Production System Research under irrigated ecosystem, 13 projects under Rainfed Cotton Production System, one under Coastal agro-ecosystem and one Competitive Grant project. In addition, some ICAR Ad-hoc Projects were also being pursued.

Breeder seed production

Breeder seed production was undertaken in the fifteen AICCIP centres during the 2004-05 season. The funds for providing incentive from Mini Mission II of Technology Mission on Cotton for the production and supply of breeder seed was Rs.10 lakhs and this was distributed to all centres, who were involved in breeder seed production. As the following table provides the details about the breeder seed production of various varieties and hybrids, the total indent was for 112.59 quintals while 203.44 quintals have been produced. The indent for 2005-06 is 198.48 quintals.

 

Source : AICCIP Annual report, 2004-05