Achievements

Crop Improvement:

Research efforts, since the formation of AICCIP in 1967, have led to the release of around 224 Cotton varieties and hybrids for the different cotton growing tracts of the country and development of economical and eco-friendly package of practices for realizing enhanced productivity. World class cotton varieties & hybrids like Suvin, DCH 32, NHH 44, TCHB 213, DHB 105, LHH 144, Shresth, LRA 5166, Anjali, Surabhi, MCU5, MCU 7, MCU 13, HHH 287, Abhadita, HD 324, DHH 11, H4, H6, H8, AAH 1, RG 8, RAJ DH 9, PKV Hy-2 and scores of others with higher yield, special characteristics and suitable to low cost production technologies have all been released over the years suiting to the textile needs and bringing net profit to the farming community in the Country. During the IX Plan period (1997-2002), 23 hybrids and 40 varieties have been released for commercial cultivation catering to the needs of the various Agro climatic regions of the country .

During the period 2000 to 2009, high yielding cotton varieties and hybrids have been released for commercial cultivation through AICCIP catering to specific needs and possessing special characteristics. Most of these varieties/hybrids are capable of yielding 18-25q/ha. The details of the varieties/hybrids are presented below.

Sl.No.

Name

Species

Year of Release

AICCIP centre

Remarks/Special characteristics

1

HD 123

G.arboreum

2000

CCSHAU, Hisar

High yielding desi variety for Irrigated tracts of Haryana

2

RS 810

G.hirsutum

2000

RAU, Sriganganagar

Resistant to cotton leaf curl virus

3

L 603 (H)

G.hirsutum

2000

ANGRAU, Hyderabad

Suitable for rainfed and also irrigated tracts of A.P.

4

L 604 (H)

G.hirsutum

2000

ANGRAU, Hyderabad

Suitable for rainfed and also irrigated tracts of A.P.

5

Aravinda

G.arboreum

2000

ANGRAU, Hyderabad

Drought tolerant desi variety

6

LAHH-4

G. hir x G. hir

2000

ANGRAU, Hyderabad

Hybrid suitable for rainfed and irrigated tracts of A.P.

7

MCU 12

G. hirsutum

2000

TNAU, Coimbatore

Suitable for 50s count and moderate sucking pest tolerance

8

SVPR-3

G. hirsutum

2000

TNAU, Coimbatore

Suitable for rice fallows of delta districts in TN

9

PHH-316 (Ganga)

G. hir x G. hir

2000

MAU, Parbhani

Drought tolerant hybrid for Marathwada

10

RHB-0388

G. hirsutum x

G.barbadense

2000

MPKV, Rahuri

Quality lint interspecific hybrid

11

RG 18

G.arboreum

2001

RAU, Sriganganagar

Leaf curl virus tolerant high yielding desi variety

12

Vagad Kalyan

G. hirsutum

2001

MPUA&T, Banswara

Rainfed tracts of south Rajasthan

13

G.Cot.18

G. hirsutum

2001

GAU, Surat

Suitable for Gujarat

14

G.Cot.21

G. herbaceum

2001

GAU, Surat

Suitable for coastal saline tracts

15

AKA 7

G.arboreum

2001

Dr. PDKV, Akola

Suitable for poor rainfall areas in Maharashtra

16

PKV HY 4

G.hir x G.hir

2001

Dr. PDKV, Akola

Cms based lintrhirsutum hybrid for rainfed conditions

17

Pratima

G. hirsutum

2001

CICR, Nagpur

Suitable for south zone

18

Sahana

G. hirsutum

2001

UAS, Dharwad

Yields better both under rainfed and irrigated situations

19

RAMPBS 155

G. hirsutum

2001

UAS, Dharwad

Robust genotype responsive to inputs

20

Sumangala

G. hirsutum

2001

CICR, Coimbatore

High yielding hirsutum for south zone

21

Bunny

G.hir x G.hir

2001

M/s Nuziveedu seeds

Popular private sector hybrid tested through AICCIP

22

Vagad Kalyan

G.hirsutum

2001

MPUAT, Banswara

Suitable for rainfed situations in south Rajasthan

23

H 1117

G.hirsutum

2002

CCSHAU, Hisar

Suitable for Haryana

24

HHH 223

G.hir x G.hir

2002

CCSHAU, Hisar

Intrahirsutum hybrid for north zone

25

RS 2013

G.hirsutum

2002

RAU, Sriganganagar

Irrigated tracts of North zone

26

JK 4

G.hirsutum

2002

JNKVV, Khandwa

Suitable for M.P.

27

G. Cot.23

G.herbaceum

2002

GAU, Surat

Suitable for coastal marginal areas

28

Phule 492

G.hir x G.hir

2002

MPKV, Rahuri

Deccan canal areas of Maharashtra

29

Phule 388

G.hir x G.bar

2002

MPKV, Rahuri

Fine quality interspecific hybrid

30 VICH 5 H x H 2002 Vikram Seeds Private sector hybrid evaluated through AICCIP
31 LAHH 5 G.hir x G.hir 2002 ANGRAU, Guntur Suitable for cotton growing areas of A.P.

32

F 1861

G.hirsutum

2003

PAU, Faridkot

Moderately high oil content

33

PA 402

G.arboreum

2003

MAU, Nanded

Suitable for less rainfall areas

34

DLSA 17

G.arboreum

2003

UAS,Dharwad

Long linted desi variety

35

Swadeshi

G.arb x G.arb

2003

M/s Ankur Seeds

Private sector hybrid evaluated through AICCIP

36

Mallika

G.hir x G.hir

2003

M/s Nuziveedu Seeds

Private sector hybrid evaluated through AICCIP

37

G.Cot.19

G.arboreum

2003

NAU, Surat

Suitable for rainfed tracts of Gujarat

38

G.Cot.MDH 11

G.hir x G.hir

2003

NAU,Surat

High yielding hybrid for rainfed areas

39

G.Cot.Hy.102

G.hir x G.hir

2003

NAU, Surat

High yielding intrahirsutum hybrid

40

Veena

G.arboreum

2004

ANGRAU, Mudhol

Good drought tolerance

41

CISAA-2 (CICR-2 )

G.arb x G.arb

2004

CICR, Sirsa

Gms based arboretum hybrid for North zone

42

PKV DH ? 1

G.arb x G.arb

2004

Dr.PDKV, Akola

Desi hybrid for rainfed farming

43

PKV Hy.5

G.hir x G.hir

2004

Dr.PDKV, Akola

Cms based hybrid

44

NH.545

G.hirsutum

2004

MAU, Nanded

Drought tolerant variety

45

Parbhani Turab ( PA 255)

G.arboreum

2004

MAU, Parbhani

Long linted desi cotton

46

CSHH-198 (Shresth)

G.hir x G.hir

2005

CICR, Sirsa

High yielding intrahirsutum hybrid for north zone

47

Pratap Kapi (RBDV.7)

G.herbaceum

2005

MPKVV, Banswara

Desi variety for rainfed tracts of south Rajasthan

48

JLA 794

G.arboreum

2005

MPKV, Jalgaon

Suitable for rainfed tracts in khandesh region of Maharashtra

49

HD 324

G. arboreum

2005

HAU, Hisar

High yielding arboretum variety for irrigated conditions of Haryana

50

MCU 13

G. hirsutum

2005

TNAU, Coimbatore

Early duration for winter irrigated tracts of T.N. and has 50s spinning potential

51

Mahabeej 106

G.hir x G.hir

2005

Mahabeej, Maharashtra

Intrahirsutum hybrid for rainfed situation

52

Mahabeej DH 986

G.arb x G.arb

2005

Mahabeej, Maharashtra

Desi hybrid for rainfed conditions

53

HHH 287

G.hir x G.hir

2005

CCSHAU, Hisar

Gms based intrahirsutum hybrid

54

PH 348 ( Yamuna)

G.hirsutum

2005

MAU, Parbhani

Suitable for Rainfed

55

PA 402( Vinayak)

G.arboreum

2005

MAU, Parbhani

Drought tolerant

56

Raj DH 9

G.arb x G. arb

2006

RAU, Sriganganagar

Good tolerance to CLCuV disease

57

CISA 310 (CICR 1)

G. arboreum

2006

CICR (RS), Sirsa

Desi variety for irrigated north zone conditions

58

NACH 6 ( Navinya)

G. hir x G. hir

2006

M/s Nirmal Seeds

Private sector hybrid evaluated through AICCIP

59 Vasant ( Navkar 5) G. hir x G. hir 2006 Ms Navkar Seeds Private sector hybrid evaluated through AICCIP
60 Ajeet II ( AHH 90-1) G. hir x G. hir 2006 Ms Ajeet Seeds Private sector hybrid evaluated through AICCIP
61 Ajeet 33 ( AHH 90-2) G. hir x G. hir 2006 Ms Ajeet Seeds Private sector hybrid evaluated through AICCIP
62 G Cot Hy 12 G.hir x G.hir 2006 NAU Surat High yielding hybrid for irrigated situation in Gujarat
64 NDLHH 240 (Sona) G.hir x G.hir 2006 ANGRAU, Nandyal Suitable for Rayalaseema region of A.P.
65 NDLA 2463 (Srinandi) G. arboreum 2006 ANGRAU, Nandyal Suitable for Rayalaseema region of A.P.
66 NH 615 (Anusuya) G.hirsutum 2007 MAU, Nanded Drought tolerant
67 JK 5 G.hirsutum 2007 JNKVV Khandwa Suitable for M.P.

68

CSHH 238 ( Kalyan)

G. hir x G. hir

2007

CICR (RS), Sirsa

High yielding intrahirsutum hybrid for north zone

69 Dhruv G. hir x G. hir 2007 Ms Zuari Seeds Private sector hybrid evaluated through AICCIP
70 LAHH 7 G.hir x G.hir 2007 LAM, Guntur Suitable for rainfed tracts of coastal A.P.
71 KC 3 G.hirsutum 2007 TNAU, Kovilpatti Well suited for low rainfall areas
72 AKA 8 G. arboreum 2007 PDKV Akola Drought tolerant
73 Moti G.arboreumxG.arboreum 2007 PAU, Ludhiana Desi hybrid for Punjab
74 H 1226 G.hirsutum 2007 CCS HAU, Hisar Irrigated conditions of Haryana
75 AKH 8828 G.hirsutum 2007 Dr.PDKV, Akola Suitable for rainfed situation
76 Suraj G.hirsutum 2008 CICR, Coimbatore Jassid tolerant long staple variety
77 RAHH 98 G. hir x G. hir 2008 UAS Dharwad Intrahirsutum hybrid for south zone
78 G Cot 20 G.hirsutum 2008 NAU Surat Irrigated tracts of Gujarat
79 NDLH 1755 (Sivanandi) G.hir x G.hir 2008 ANGRAU, Nandyal Well suited for rainfed conditions
80 CICR 1 ( CISA 310) G.arboreum 2008 CICR RS, Sirsa Short staple desi genotype
81 CSHH 243 ( Simran) G.hirxG.hir 2008 CICR,RS,Sirsa High yielding intrahirsutum hybrid with good tolerance to CLCuV
82 G.Cot.20 G.hirsutum 2008 NAU, Surat Irrigated tracts of Gujarat

83

RAS 299-1

G.hirsutum

2009

UAS, Dharwad

Rainfed farming

84

DDhc-11

G.herbaceum

2009

UAS, Dharwad

Desi genotype suitable marginal soils

85

Suvidha ( DHH 543)

G. hir x G. hir

2009

UAS, Dharwad

High yielding hybrid for Karnataka

86

CNHO 12

G.hirsutum

2009

CICR, Nagpur

Suitable for denim purposes

87

CISA 614

G.arboreum

2009

CICR, RS, SIRSA

Non-spinnable desi with good yield potential

Cotton Crop Production technologies by AICCIP:

  • Use of Azospirillum and Azotobacter was found beneficial in supplementing nitrogen needs of the cotton crop by 20-30 Kg/ha
  • Use of 5-10 tonnes of farmyard manure per ha and foliar spray of 2% DAP or Urea is suggested to reduce 50% of recommended dose of chemical fertilizers
  • Use of Naphthalene acetic acid (40 ppm) to prevent bud and boll shedding
  • Use of weedicides like fluchloralin @ 1 Kg a.i./ha, Pendimethalin @ 1.5 Kg a.i./ha with interculture at 35 days after sowing was seen at par with manual weeding practice
  • Ridges and furrow system of sowing; Drip irrigation with fertigation for saving irrigation water and to improve seed cotton yield by 25% in southern zone
  • Detopping of apical bud under irrigated conditions ensures better development and retention of late-formed bolls besides arresting further vegetative growth.
  • Possibilities of crop diversification in traditional and non-traditional areas were explored and through the efforts of AICCIP, cotton area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1995-96 to 40,000 ha during 2004-05 in Orissa, a non-traditional cotton growing state. Potentiality exists to increase the area up to 1.0 lakh ha.
  • High yielding G.herbaceum cotton genotypes RAHS14, G.Cot.21 and desi hybrids G.Cot DH 7 and G.Cot.DH 9 were seen well adapted to coastal areas of the country with yield levels ranging from 10- 25 q/ha due to better physiological and biochemical adaptability attributes.

 

Soil types suitable for cotton identified under AICCIP

Soil type

States

Black soils

Maharashtra , Gujarat , Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and parts of Karnataka and southern Tamil Nadu

Alluvial soils :-

clay-loam

loamy and sandy loam soils

 

Punjab

Haryana, Rajasthan, delta areas of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

Red soils

parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Laterite soils

parts of Tamil Nadu, Orissa and North Eastern states

Coastal Saline-Alkali Soils

Gujarat State

Seed rate, Ppacing and Plant population for different species of cotton in three zones identified under AICCIP:

Species

Growing condition

Cotton Zone

Seed rate
(acid delinted)
(kg/ha)

Spacing
(cm)

Plant population

(per ha)

G. hirsutum

Irrigated

Northern

8-10

75 x 15

88,900

 

 

Southern

8-10

75 x 30

44,444

 

 

 

8-10

75 x 45

33,000

 

Rainfed

Central

8-10

60 x 30

55,600

 

 

Southern

8-10

60 x 30

55,600

 

 

 

8-10

45 x 30

74,000

G. arboreum and G. herbaceum

Irrigated

Northern

6-8

60 x 30

55,600

 

 

Central

10-12

60 x 30

55,600

 

Rainfed

Central

10-12

45 x 60

88,900

 

 

Southern

10-12

60 x 30

55,600

G. barbadense

Irrigated

Southern

8-10

90 x 30

37,000

Hybrids (Intra and Inter specific)

Irrigated

Southern

2.0-2.5

90 x 30

37,000

 

 

 

 

90 x 45

24,690

 

 

 

 

90 x 60

18,518

 

 

Central

2-3

120 x 40

20,883

 

 

 

 

120 x 60

13,888

 

 

 

 

90 x 30

37,000

 

 

 

 

90 x 45

24,690

 

 

 

 

90 x 60

18,518

 

 

 

 

90 x 75

14,815

 

 

 

 

150 x 60

11,111

 

 

 

 

120 x 80

8,333

 

Rainfed

Central

2.0-2.5

150 x 60

11,111

 

 

Southern

2.0-2.5

120 x 60

13,900

Cropping System Management :

Diversified cropping systems and crop rotations suited to various agro-niches have been identified through AICCIP and are very popular among cotton growing farmers.

Cotton based Cropping systems adapted to different situations

State

Cropping system

Punjab , Haryana and Rajasthan

Cotton-wheat, Cotton-mustard, cotton-berseem

Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat

Cotton (monocrop), Cotton-jowar (two year rotation), cotton-wheat, cotton intercropped with black gram, green gram, soyabean, groundnut and red gram.

Cotton as a complementary crop has been found to be profitable in Sugar cane based cropping system in Maharashtra .

Tamil Nadu

Cotton (monocrop), rice-cotton, rice-rice-cotton, cotton-jowar, cotton-pulse-jowar, cotton intercropped with onion, black gram, groundnut

Cotton as a complementary crop has been found to be profitable in banana based cropping system in Tamil Nadu

Andhra Pradesh

Cotton (monocrop), cotton-rice (1 year), cotton-chilli or cotton-tobacco (two year rotation)

Karnataka

Cotton (monocrop), cotton-wheat, cotton intercropped with chilli, black gram, green gram, groundnut

Crop Protection Practices Developed by AICCIP:

 

Following genotypes have been identified for their pest and disease tolerance and have been appropriately deployed in the resistance breeding programme for development of multi adversity resistance lines with better yielding ability for different regions

Biotic Stress

Variety

Zone

White fly

Abadhita, LK 861, Kanchana, Supriya

South zone

Boll worm

Abadhita

South zone

Cotton leaf curl virus disease

LHH 144, CSHH 198,RS 810, RS 875, RS 2013, F 1861, H1117

North zone

Fusarium wilt

G Cot 13, Eknath, Rohini

Central zone

Bacterial Blight

Arogya

Central zone

Verticillium wilt

MCU 5 VT, Surabhi

South zone

Recommended chemicals to manage foliar diseases :

Disease

Recommended fungicide/bactericide

Root rot

Carbendazim or vitavax as seed treament

Bacterial blight

Streptomycin sulphate (100 ppm) + copper oxychloride (0.3%) as foliar spray twice at an interval of 10 days

Alternaria leaf s[pot

Dithane M 45 or copper oxychloride as foliar spray twice at an interval of 10 days

Grey mildew

Carbendazim @250g/ha as foliar spray

Cotton is long lasting if well looked after

Myrothecium leaf spot

carbendazim copper oxychloride as foliar spray

Biological control :

Several antagonistic organisms were evaluated for the management of Root Rot and foliar diseases of cotton. Trichoderma harzianum has been found to control the root rot effectively in northern cotton growing states such as Rajasthan and Haryana. This species is also recommended for seed and soil application just before sowing. Commercial formulations containing Trichoderma are readily available this purpose. Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas fluorescencs have been found effective in the control of bacterial blight.

Location specific IPM modules were tested at different centres of AICCIP in all the three zones and indicated the following advantages of IPM Module.

  • Incidence and damage of pest was less
  • Activity of Natural enemies was more
  • Number of sprays were reduced by 50 %
  • The Net income and cost benefit ratio were higher in the range of 1:2.5
  • Foliar application of Imidacloprid 35SC, Clothianidin 50WDG, diafenthiuron (Polo 50SC) were found effective against Sap Sucking insect pests. Emamectin benzoate, KN 128, Spinosad, RIL 038 and Karate zion 5CS were all found effective in controlling boll worm complex.

Fine Tuning of Integrated Pest Management :

With the help of the network programme of entomological trials under AICCIP, elaborate integrated pest management strategies have been evolved using cultural, mechanical and chemical components to reduce the insecticide application and make it more environmental friendly and sustainable. Biocontrol agents like Trichogramma and NPV virus and plant products like Neem, mineral oil and fish oil rosin soap for controlling the cotton pests have helped to reduce the dependence on chemical pesticides. Monitoring of insecticide resistance to Helicoverpa in several agro-ecosystems has helped to better manage the pest in the farmer's fields.

Large scale field demonstrations of IPM technologies in farmer's fields in several cotton growing regions across the country showed that the pesticides usage was reduced by 30-40%, cost of pesticide application reduced by 40-50% and farmers obtain 20-30% higher seed cotton yield as compared to control villages, where farmers used only pesticides for the control of insect pests.

The main components of IPM technologies developed for cotton by AICCIP are:

  • Deep summer ploughing to expose soil borne pests, pathogens and their destruction
  • Avoiding monocropping and proper crop rotation, selection of pest resistant cultivars
  • Using certified acid delinted seeds for good plant stand and preventing seed borne diseases causing organism and pink bollworm
  • Seed treatment with Imidacloprid to prevent the early season sucking pests and Trichoderma to prevent seedling rot
  • Monitoring with pheromone traps and assessment of pest population through scouting and ETL based application of appropriate technology to reduce the pest build up
  • Application of biopesticides (Trichogramma, neem, NPV) in the early phase of the crop growth. Phased application of proper pesticides ensuring correct dosage and coverage depending upon the pest and age of the crop
  • Adoption of recommended agronomic practices ; Avoiding closer spacing, high dose of nitrogenous fertilizers and excess irrigation
  • Inter cropping with cowpea/sorghum/soybean to enhance the natural enemy population of cotton pests and to diversify the cropping system
  • Trap cropping of castor for Spodoptera and Bhendi/pigeon pea for Helicoverpa
  • Hand collection and destruction of grown up larvae and damaged plant parts etc
  • Cotton leaf curl virus disease has been introduced from the neighbouring cotton growing country into western part of Punjab and Rajasthan few years ago
  • Location specific Integrated Pest Management strategies have been developed through network research of AICCIP
  • IPM strategy consisted of Sex pheromone, release of Trichogramma and spraying of neem based insecticides and need based synthetic insecticides. This proved to be effective in managing cotton pest complex
  • Basal application of neem cake at 150 kg/ha coupled with drenching 1% neem oil helped in minimising stem weevil damage
  • Major emphasis is given for developing varieties/hybrids resistant to key pests
  • Role of egg larval parasite- Chelonus blackburni - in control of bollworms was established
  • Growing of intercrops like cluster bean and Maize reduced pest infestation in Andhra Pradesh
  • Cotton intercropped with cowpea, blackgram and greengram had lesser incidence of jassids and bollworms
  • New Pesticide molecules viz., Imidacloprid ( 10g/kg of seed) and Thiomethoxam ( 4.3 g/kg of seed) were effective in controlling jassid and whitefly population
  • Newer insecticides like RH.2485, Match, Bull dock, Decis Tab and Alanycarb were found effective in the control of bollworms
  • Topsin M (0.05%) and Carbendazim (0.05%) were effective in control of Myrothecium and Alternaria leaf spot
  • Estimation of yield loss due to Grey mildew was found to be of the order of 20 to 40% in Central Zone. Prochloraz and Propiconazole gave significant control of Grey mildew
  • Flavobacterium sp. was found effective in control of bacterial blight

 

 

Information compiled, Page designed and developed by M. Sabesh, Scientist(SS), CICR, Coimbatore