ALL INDIA COORDINATED COTTON IMPROVEMENT PROJECT - CENTERS


SRIGANGANAGAR

The center was established during 1967 at Agricultural Research Station, Sriganganagar. Cotton is grown on about 5.35 lakh hectares in the state and out of this more than 80% is grown in the area where AICCIP center is located. There are total six posts of scientific staff; 2 breeders, one agronomist, one entomologist, one plant pathologist and one of Virologist.

This center has developed series of high yielding varieties of both American as well as Desi cotton. Development of early maturing varieties (Ganganagar Ageti and Bikaneri Narma) by this center, made it possible to grow Cotton – Wheat rotation successfully in Northern Rajasthan. This center was the first to release CLCV resistant varieties of American cotton (RS 810,& RS 2013) in North India to combat the sever losses caused by CLCV disease. In desi cotton, variety RG 8 developed by this center has recorded higher yields than American cotton varieties, still dominate in northern states. Since last many years this center is HOT SPOT for CLCV disease, so screening of cultivars under natural condition is as effective as under artificial condition.

developed in last five years:

  • RS 2013: CLCV resistant variety of G. hirsutum was released for the state.
  • RAJDH 9: RAJDH 9 is a GMS based intra- arboreum hybrid released for the state.
  • RGMS 3: Genetically male sterile line of arboreum cotton developed and got registered with National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resource.
  • RCMS 3: Cytoplasmic male sterile line of hirsutum cotton developed and got registered with National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resource.
  • Screening of cotton genotypes against CLCV: A total of about 526 breeding lines (varieties / hybrids) were screened against leaf curl viral disease out of these 51 varieties showed resistant to CLCV.
  • Management of Root Rot Disease: For the management of root rot disease, seed treatment with bio-agent Pseudomonas flurescens @ 10g/ kg seed and chemical Vitavax (carboxin) 200 WP @ 3g/ kg were found effective.
  • Documentation of weed flora serving as alternate/collateral host for CLVC
  • Screening against insect pests: A total, 519 entries were screened for resistance to sucking pests and bollworms. Out of these 16 entries of G. hirsutum and 15 entries of G. arborium were found tolerant / resistant against sucking pests (Jassids, Whitefly, Thrips & Aphids ) and bollworms (Spotted and Pink).
  • Population dynamics studies were conducted for Jassid and white fly.
  • Testing the new compounds against insect pests
  • Sucking pests: Imidaclorpid 200SL and Thiomethoxam 25WG were recommended as seed dresser for the control of early sucking pests and foliar application of Neem oil/ Imidaclorpid 200 SL/ Thiomethoxam 25 WG/ Acetamiprids 20 SPand Thiocloprid 25WG was recommended for the control of white fly.
  • Bollworms : New molecules Spinosad 45 SC/ Indoxacarb 14.5 SC / beta Cyfluthrin 2.5 EC, Alfamethrin 10EC and Thiodicarb 75 SP were recommended for the control of bollworms.
  • Integated pest management in cotton (IPM) :- An IPM Modules was developed at Agriculture Research station, Sriganganagar for this zone.
  • Under IRM, window based spray schedule was developed to avoid or delay the development of resistance against insecticides in insects.
  • For desi cotton hybrid RAJDH 9, plant spacing of 67.5x60cm and P 2 O 5 @40 kg/ha were found optimum.
  • Application of 20 kg K 2 O was recommended for American cotton.
  • Weed Management in American cotton: Pre-plant application of trifluralin @1.5kg/ha or pendimethalin @1 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding was recommended.
  • Under INM application of 50%NPK+10Yfym+foliar nutrient was recommended for American cotton.

List of released cotton varieties from your station with characteristics:

AMERICAN COTTON

RS 2013: The average plant height of this variety is 125-130 cm. Flowers are of yellow in color. and bolls are of medium size. Mean fiber length of this variety is 25 mm and ginning out turn 35 per cent. It matures in 165-170 days and gives 22-24 q seed cotton yield. The variety is resistant to cotton leaf curl virus disease and moderately tolerant to Jassids and American boll worms.

RS 810: The average plant height of this variety is 130-140 cm. Flowers are of yellow in color. Bolls are of medium size, mean fiber length of 27mm and ginning out turn 35 per cent.. It matures in 170-180 days and gives 22-24 q seed cotton yield. The variety is resistant to cotton leaf curl virus disease.

RST 9 : The average plant height of this variety is 130-140 cm. Foliage color is light green with light yellow flower. Number of monopods per plant varies from 4-6. The average boll weight in this variety is 3.5 g. It matures in 160 -200 days. Loss due to jassids on this variety is comparatively less and it has high ginning per cent. In this variety Ist irrigation can be delayed upto 50 days

RS 875: The average plant height of this variety is 100-110 cm. Number of monopods per plant varies from 0-1. Bolls are of medium size (average boll weight 3.5 g).Mean fiber length in this variety is 27mm and oil content 27 per cent, which is higher than the other recommended varieties. It matures in 150-160 days so that normal sown crop of wheat can be taken after cotton.

Ganganagar Ageti : The average plant height of this variety is 120-150 cm. Leaves are of medium size with dark green in color. Flowers are of light yellow color. Number of monopods per plant varies from 2-3. Bolls are of medium size (average boll weight 2.5 g). It matures in 170-180 days so that normal sown crop of wheat can be taken after cotton

Bikaneri Narma:  

The average plant height of this variety is 135-165 cm. Foliage color is light green with light yellow flower. Number of monopods per plant varies from 4-6. Bolls are of medium size (Average boll weight 2.0 gms). It matures in 160 -200 days.

Maru Vikas:  

It is hybrid variety of American cotton. The average plant height of this variety is 135-145 cm. Leaves are of medium size with light green in color and flowers are of light yellow color. Bolls are of medium size (average weight 4.5g), mean fiber length of 27mm and ginning out turn 40 per cent. It matures in 170-180 days.

DESI COTTON

RG 8 : In this variety leaves are narrow and deeply loved. Flower are of light yellow in color with red spots on the inner side of petals. Boll are oblong in shape. This variety is comparatively early in maturity , average seed cotton yield is 20-25 q/ha and has high ginning per centage.

RG 18 : It is a medium maturing (160-170 days) variety having sympodial branches. The average plant height of this variety is 130-140 cm. Leaves are violet in color with narrow loved. Flowers are of pink color with dark red spots. Boll are medium in size (average weight 2.20 g). Ginning out turn in this variety is 38 per cent and average seed cotton yield is 24-26 q/ha This variety is tolerant to root rot disease.

RAJDH 9: RAJDH 9 is genetically male sterility based hybrid of arboreum cotton released in the state in 2005. The height of plants is 140-145 cm and leaves are of green color. Flowers are yellow in colour with red spots on petals in side. Bolls are oblong in shape. Average seed cotton yield is 26-27 q/ha and ginning percent 39.0. The hybrid matures in 160-170 days.

Areas for XI Plan

Plant Breeding:

BREEDING FOR RESISTANCE/TOLERANCE AGAINST BIOTIC STRESSES:

In north zone CLCV is the most important factor affecting the cotton yields. .Bollworms, sucking pests are also important factors responsible for low yields of cotton in the state. Plant protection measures (chemical based) against these factors not only increase the cost of cultivation but also pollute our environment. Under new WTO regime, to reduce the cost of cultivation is one of the important mandates. By incorporating resistance against these biotic agents we can not only stabilize the production but reduce the cost of cultivation also.

Breeding for resistance against CLCV disease: In north zone, since 1997 and onwards, CLCV disease has caused severe losses to cotton crop. At ARS, Sriganganagar, work is going on this aspect and numbers of lines are in advance sage of testing and are being tested under AICCIP and TMC projects.

Breeding for tolerance against sucking pests: Jassids and whitefly are important sucking pests of cotton in all the cotton growing tracts. Varieties such as Bikaneri Narma, RST 9 and RS 2013 released from this station have shown appreciable resistance against sucking pests. This programme has to be continued for cotton improvement.

Breeding for resistance/tolerance against bollworms: Bollworms cause maximum losses in cotton yields. Incorporation of Bt genes (Cry 1Ac, …) is the most effective approach to reduce losses due to bollworm complex. Therefore, incorporation of Bt genes (Cry1Ac, ….) in the varieties should be given top priority.

VALUE ADDITION IN COTTON : Cotton is a cash crop and requires high cost inputs. To make it more profitable/or to get higher price, one has to improve the lint quality. Improved lint quality is also demanded by modern textile industry as well as in international market.

Breeding for improved fibre quality in arboreum cotton: In north zone arboreum (short and coarse stapled) cotton produced is needed to fulfill the requirements of absorbent cotton, handlooms, power looms and rugs. However, by improving the quality parameters, arboreum can be used for spinning in textile industry also. As arboreum cultivars are having better tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses, so by improving the quality traits, this species may occupy some area presently under hirsutum cotton. Thus we can reduce the cost of cultivation. Success has been achieved in improving fibre length and reducing short fiber content in arboreum cultivars as compare to prevailing genotypes, RG8 and RG 18. However, improvement in fibre strength is still required.

Breeding for improved quality in hirsutum cotton: In hirsutum cotton, we are producing mainly medium and superior medium lint cotton. There is big scope to further improve lint quality, particularly length and strength. Under TMC project efforts are under way to improve both these traits. By selecting genotypes tolerant to low temperature at maturity, we can have lines in which leaves may remain green at maturity. Thus we can reduce trace content also.

Improvement in oil content in cotton seed: To meet the demand of edible oil we have to import large quantity of oil. By improving the oil content, cotton seed can be a good source of edible oil.

BREEDING FOR EARLY MATURING/ BETTER WATER USE EFFICIENCY: In north zone erratic water supply in canal system has been mainly responsible for reduction in acreage as well as productivity cotton crop in past few years. In central zone and southern zone also, cotton production is very much dependent on rainfall. Thus, development of less water requiring/drought tolerant genotypes may help in boosting the cotton production in the state. Cotton variety RST 9 developed at ARS, Sriganganagar became popular in entire north and central zone mainly due to its less water requirement particularly in early growth period. Development of early maturing genotypes, efficient in water use may withstand better under drought prone areas & where irrigation water is in shortage.

DEVELOPMENT OF HYBRIDS: In the state area under cotton hybrids is negligible, however, by developing hybrids, yield levels can be improved. Efforts are going on and a GMS based arboreum hybrid (RAJDH 9) has been identified for release in the state. Genetically male sterile lines in the background of locally adapted parents have been developed in both arboreum as well as in hirsutum cotton. Incorporation of Bt genes in the hybrids will further help in boosting the cotton production.

AGRONOMY

  • To develop package of practices for pre-release cultures/newly developed varieties /hybrids/Bt. Cotton hybrids.
  • Weed management aspects will be worked out concurrently with inclusion of new herbicide molecules coming into the cotton production scenario.
  • Cropping system research will be undertaken with cotton based cropping system, for sustainability of production system.
  • Newer aspects of cotton agronomical research like tillage, residue management , water management, INM techniques etc.

ENTOMOLOGY:

  • Insecticide resistance management: Excessive use of insecticides has not only increased cost of cultivation but resulted in development of resistance in insect population against various insecticides. Thus in XI plan maximum emphasis should be on IRM aspects. This will not only reduce cost of cultivation but reduce the environmental pollution also.
  • Integrated pest management: Use of chemical control measures alone resulted in inducing resistance in the insect-pest on one side at the same time it effect adversely the population of friendly insects. Thus use of integrated approach i.e. use of resistant cultivars, chemicals, bio-agents, bio- pesticides, pheromone traps etc. together will help in development of sustainable control measures of insect pests on cotton.
  • Screening against insect pests: Resistant cultivars particularly against sucking pests have helped in reducing the number of sprays on cotton crop. Thus screening of new genotypes and germplasm accessions will remain an important programme.
  • Studies on population dynamics of key pests of cotton in relation to climatic conditions to develop suitable forecasting module.
  • Testing of new molecules against common insect pests and newly emerging insects like mites, thrips, aphids and milli bugs.

PATHOLOGY:

Cotton leaf curl virus caused by Geminy virus and root rot caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola and R. solani are important disease causing savior losses to the cotton crop.

Cotton leaf curl virus disease:

  • Identification of resistance sources: Sriganganagar being a hot spot for this disease provides good opportunity to screen material for resistance against CLCV. New breeding lines and germplasm accessions will be evaluated to find out resistance sources.
  • Epidemiological studies: Epidemiological aspects of disease will be studied to know the nature of disease appearance &spread for developing disease forecasting models and to study vector – disease relation ship..
  • Studies on new biotypes of CLCV: Under net working projects with the scientists from PAU , HAU and IARI efforts will be made to identify new biotypes.
  • Documentation of new weeds serving as alternate/collateral host for the virus.

Root Rot disease:

  • Identification of resistance sources: New breeding lines and germplasm accessions will be evaluated under artificial conditions to find out resistance sources.
  • Management of Root Rot: New molecules and bio-agents will be evaluated for management of root rot disease.

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE/STABILIZE COTTON PRODUCTION IN THE STATE

Rajasthan is an important producer of short medium and superior medium staple cotton. There was a continuous increase in area and production of cotton since 1960 to 1996. During this period area and production increased from 1.34 lacs ha to 6.54 lacs ha and from 1.46 lacs bale to 14 lacs bales, respectively. However, in last one decade there has been decline in both, area as well as production mainly due to inadequate supply of irrigation water and sever attack of biotic factors in major cotton growing tract.

The state can be broadly divided into three major cotton-growing zones, north, central and southern zone, depending upon soil and agro-climatic conditions.

North zone: North zone, comprised of Sriganganagar, Hanumangarh and Bikaner districts, is the major cotton-growing tract in the state. About 80% percent of total cotton acreage of the state is in this zone. Both hirsutum and arboreum cultivars are grown in this zone in 70:30 ratio. Rainfall in this zone varies from 100 to 300mm and distribution is very much erratic. Cotton production in this zone is totally based on canal irrigation. In past one decade, inadequate supply of irrigation water and attack of insect pest and diseases has resulted in drastic reduction in cotton production in this zone.

Central zone: In this zone important cotton growing district are Nagore, Pali, Jodhpur, Ajmer, Sirohi and Alwar. All the districts except Sirohi has more than 10 thousand hectares under cotton. This zone represents about 10-12 percent acreage under cotton in the state. The rainfall in this zone varies from 500 to 900 mm. Cotton production in this zone is based on mainly precipitation and small quantum of irrigation through wells. The problems of biotic stress are low in this zone as compare to north zone. Abiotic stress is the main limiting factor for cotton production in this zone. Introduction of drought tolerant cultivars in this zone will not only improve the productivity but also enhance the acreage under cotton.

Southern zone: Bhilwara and Banswara are major cotton growing districts in this zone. Cotton is grown mainly under rainfed condition. However, with the commencement of Mahi Canal Project cotton is now cultivated under irrigated condition also in Banswara district. Hirsutum cotton is grown in Bhilwara region and under irrigated condition in Banswara district. Herbaceum cotton is also grown in small acreage under rainfed condition in Banswara district

 

Dr Pramod Pundir
Sr.Scientist (Cotton),
Agricultural. Research Station,
Sriganganagar - 335 001
RAJASTHAN

Phone no: 0154-2420619(O) 2427499(R)

Fax no: 0154-2435010

Email : sriganganagar_aiccip@yahoo.com