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Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
Srivilliputhur, Tamil Nadu


Historical background:

Cotton Research Station, Srivilliputtur is located 2kms away from Srivilliputtur town on Sivakasi Road. This station has a cultivable area of 9.38 ha (23.45 acre). This station is geographically placed at 9" 5' North latitude and 77" 6' East longitude and at an altitude of 137.9 m MSL. The station was started in 1950 with the main objective of evolving good quality extra long staple cotton for the summer irrigated tracts of Tamil Nadu. Initially breeding work was commenced on lease land and with the encouraging results obtained, Government established a permanent Cotton Research Station, acquiring the present area. The first long staple cotton variety MCU 2 was released from this station during 1954 and this was the basis for the improvement of long staple cotton in India.

Later the research work on Cotton Agronomy was also initiated on 18.2.1963 as a part of All India Co-ordinated Cotton Improvement Project which was attached to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University from 1971. Later under the auspices of All India Co-ordinated Cotton Improvement Project, research works on Entomology, Plant Pathology, Soil Science and Crop Physiology were taken up. During 1982, this station was identified as a lead centre for medium staple cotton to enhance the production of medium staple cotton in Tamil Nadu. As a result, a high medium staple cotton variety SVPR 2 was developed and released during 1996 for the irrigated area of South India and Tamil Nadu. Since it is a drought tolerant variety with high rejuvenation capacity, SVPR 2 cotton has also performed well in the vertisol regions of winter rainfed tracts of Tamil Nadu.

Climatic conditions in the state where centre present

The normal climate conditions prevailing the cropping period of the centre is furnished below

Month Maximum Temperature (oC) Minimum Temperature (oC) Rainfall (mm)
August 35.1 24.5 29.6 (4)
September 34.5 24.5 53.5 (6)
October 32.0 22.5 194.9 (11)
November 29.8 21.9 296.0 (12)
December 28.7 22.0 205.6 (13)
January 27.9 21.9 -

Cotton growing Districts:


As a commercial crop different varieties of cotton are grown to the extent of 104095 ha in Tamil Nadu. The major cotton growing districts are Perambalur, Coimbatore, Erode, Virudhunagar, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Theni, Dindigul, Ariyalur, Salem, Trichy, Dharmapuri Vellore and Villupuram

Mandate and Objectives


The mandate crop for this station is cotton and primary objectives of this institute are

  • Development of high yielding upland cotton variety (both medium and long staple) with resistant to leaf hopper for the summer irrigated / rice fallow cotton tracts of Tamil Nadu.
  • Development of high yielding long staple intra hirsutum hybrid for the summer irrigated / rice fallow tracts of Tamil Nadu.
  • Evaluation of cotton genotypes / hybrids received under AICCIP trials.
  • Crop weather modelling and studies on continuous use of herbicides in summer irrigated cotton based cropping system.
  • Evaluation of spacing and fertilizer recommended for the pre-release genotypes.
  • Evaluation of Integrated Nutrient Management system for the summer irrigated cotton.
  • Evolving viable IPM module for the summer irrigated cotton.
  • Testing of new chemicals and formulations against sucking pests and boll worms in cotton
  • Development of management strategy for the control of stem weevil.
  • Identification of cotton genotypes resistant to sucking pests and stem weevil.
  • Evolving suitable forecasting model for the major pest of cotton

Name of the ScientistDr. G. Srinivasan
DesignationProfessor and Head
DisciplineAgronomy
Year Since ICAR-AICRP
on Cotton
August 2022
Mob:8903441183
Email id:gsrinivasan.tnau@gmail.com

Name of the ScientistDr.R.Thangapandian
DesignationProfessor
DisciplinePlant Breeding and Genetics
Year Since ICAR-AICRP
on Cotton
November 2022
Mob:9688694157
Email id:ricetha@gmail.com

Name of the ScientistDr.C.Vijayaraghavan
DesignationAssociate Professor
DisciplineAgricultural Entomology
Year Since ICAR-AICRP
on Cotton
October 2022
Mob:9443823062
Email id:vijayaraghavanento@yahoo.co.in

Workshops/conferences/symposium attended


  • Dr. R.Veeraputhiran, Assoc. Prof. (Agronomy) and Dr.K.Sasikumar, Asst. Prof (Agrl. Entomology). National Seminar on “Prospects of Organic Farming and Enterprises Development in 21st Century". 15.03.2019 and 16.03.2019. School of Agriculture & Animla Science, Gandhigram rural Institute, Gandhigram, Dindigul. Gandhigram rural Institute, Gandhigram, Dindigul
  • Dr. R.Veeraputhiran, Assoc. Prof. (Agronomy) and Dr. K. Thiyagu, Asst. Prof. (PBG). International conference on “Innovative extension management for uplifting livelihood of farmers status, Initiatives and way forward. 27.06.19 -28.06.19. TANUVAS, Chennai. TANUVAS, Chennai
  • Dr. K. Sasikumar, Asst. Prof. (Agrl. Ento) International seminar on Trans boundary Pest Management. 04.03.2020-05.03.2020. Department of Agrl. Entomology, CPPS, TNAU, Coimbatore
  • Dr. R.Veeraputhiran, Assoc. Prof. (Agronomy) and Dr. K. Thiyagu, Asst. Prof. (PBG) National symposium on Cotton production technologies in the next decade: Problems and perspectives. 22.01.2020 - 24.01.2020. Cotton Research and Development Association. HISAR, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar
  • Dr.G.Srinivasan, Professor and Head, Dr.R.Thangapandian, Professor (PBG) and Dr.C.Vijayaraghavan, Assoc.Prof (Ento).Workshop on Future prospects of cotton Farming in Tamil Nadu. 30.01.2023. TNAU. CRS, Veppanthattai

Trainings attended


  • Dr. R.Veeraputhiran, Assoc. Prof. (Agronomy), Training on “Coconut based integrated Farming System”. 21.05.2018 to 27.05.2018 ICAR- CPCRI, Kasaragod, Kerala, ICAR- CPCRI, Kasaragod, Kerala
  • Dr. K. Thiyagu,Asst. Prof. (PBG), ICAR Winter school on “New vistas in seed production, processing, seed enhancement and marketing". 14.11.2018 - 04.12.2018. ICAR, New Delhi and Directorate of Seed Centre, TNAU, Coimbatore. TNAU, Coimbatore
  • Dr.K. Sasikumar, Asst. Professor (Agrl.Ento.). ICAR- CAFT Training in Entomology on “Recent trends in pest status, pesticide usage and pest management strategies in agriculture. 05.10.2018 to 25.10.2018. Department of Entomology, CCSHAU, Hisar. Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana. Agricultural University, Haryana
  • Dr. R. Veeraputhiran, Assoc. Prof. (Agron.), Winter school on “Regional integrated assessment of climate change in agriculture”. 30.01.2020 - 19.02.2020 Directorate of Crop Management, TNAU, Coimbatore. TNAU, Coimbatore
  • Dr.R. Veeraputhiran, Assoc. Prof. (Agron.), Intellectual Property Rights. 27.09.2019 - 28.09.2019. Directorate of CARDS TNAU, Coimbatore. TNAU, Coimbatore
  • Dr.K.Thiyagu, Asst. Prof. (PBG) and Dr.K. Sasikumar, Asst. Prof. (Agrl. Ento). Training on “Innovative Teaching Methodologies for enhancing academic proficiency”. 11.12.2019-13.12.2019. Directorate of Planning and Monitoring, TNAU, Coimbatore. TNAU, Coimbatore
  • Dr.K. Sasikumar, Asst. Prof. (Agrl. Ento). Plant Quarantine National regulations & Procedure. 15.07.2019 - 19.07.2019. Director (Plant Quarantine), NIPHM, Hyderabad
  • Dr.R. Veeraputhiran, Assoc. Prof. (Agron.), Dr.K.Suresh, Asst. Prof (Ento) and Dr.G.Anand, Asst. Prof (PBG). Training on bee keeping. CRS, SVPR.

Awards


  • Dr. R.Veeraputhiran, Asst. Prof. (Agron). Best oral paper presentation award in theme – II during National Seminar on “Prospects of Organic Farming and Enterprises Development in 21st Century. 16.03.2019. Gandhigram rural Institute, Gandhigram, Dindigul
  • Dr.K.Suresh, Asst. Prof (Ento). Certificate of Appreciation. 29.12.2021. AAPMHE (Association for Advancement of pest management in Horticultural Eco system
  • Dr. R.Veeraputhiran, Assoc. Prof and Head. First position in oral presentation under the theme climate resilient organic farming. 17.03.2022 & 18.03.2022. TNAU
  • Dr. C. Vijayaraghavan, Assoc. Prof (Ento). Prof. M. S. Swaminathan Best Scientist Award Conferred by Bose science Society, Pudukottai Sponsored by Tamil Nadu Scientific Research Organisation. 28.02.2023. Pushkaram Agricultural College, Pudukkottai
  • Dr.C.Vijayaraghavan, Assoc.Prof (Ento). Achiever award 2022 Conferred by Society for advancement of human Dr.YS.Parmar University of horticulture and forestry, Solan. 17.03.2023

Trials conducted


Sl. No. Year No. of trials conducted
Breeding Agronomy Entomology
1. 2018 – 2019 5 4 6
2. 2019 – 2020 5 4 5
3. 2020 – 2021 5 4 5
4. 2021 – 2022 1 5 5
5. 2022 – 2023 2 5 5

Details of the trials conducted


Breeding


2018 – 2019

  • Br.02 (a) NT: Initial Evaluation Trial of G. hirsutum
  • Br.03 (a) ZT: Preliminary Varietal Trial of G. hirsutum
  • Br.04 (a) ZT: Coordinated Varietal Trial of G. hirsutum
  • Br. 05 (a) ZT: Co-ordinated Hybrid Trial - Intra hirsutum hybrids
  • Br. 06 (a) ZT: Co-ordinated Varietal Trial - Compact genotypes

2019 – 2020

  • Br.02 (a) NT: Initial Evaluation Trial of G. hirsutum
  • Br.03 (a) ZT: Preliminary Varietal Trial of G. hirsutum
  • Br.04 (a) ZT: Coordinated Varietal Trial of G. hirsutum
  • Br. 05 (a) ZT: Co-ordinated Hybrid Trial - Intra hirsutum hybrids
  • Br. 06 (a) ZT: Co-ordinated Varietal Trial - Compact genotypes

2020 – 2021

  • Br.02 (a) NT: Initial Evaluation Trial of G. hirsutum
  • Br.03 (a) ZT: Preliminary Varietal Trial of G. hirsutum
  • Br.04 (a) ZT: Coordinated Varietal Trial of G. hirsutum
  • Br. 05 (a) ZT: Co-ordinated Hybrid Trial - Intra hirsutum hybrids
  • Br. 06 (a) ZT: Co-ordinated Varietal Trial - Compact genotypes

2021 – 2022

  • Br.04 (a) ZT: Coordinated Varietal Trial of G. hirsutum

    2022 – 2023

  • Br.04 (a) ZT: Coordinated Varietal Trial of G. hirsutum
  • Br.03 a/b CVT: Colour Cotton

Agronomy


2018 - 2019

  • Agron IA – Agronmic requirements of promising pre-release / recently released hirsutum genotypes of cotton
  • Agron IV – Technology for organic cotton production
  • Agron V – Conservation Agriculture in cotton based cropping system
  • Agron VII – Input use pattern and cost of cultivation in cotton

2019 - 2020

  • Agron IA – Agronmic requirements of promising pre-release / recently released hirsutum genotypes of cotton
  • Agron IV – Technology for organic cotton production
  • Agron V – Conservation Agriculture in cotton based cropping system
  • Agron X – Multi-tier cropping system to enhance resource utilization, profitability and Sustainability

2020 - 2021

  • Agronomy 1A: Agronomic requirements of promising pre- release / recently released hirsutum genotypes of cotton
  • Agron V – Technology for organic cotton production
  • Agronomy VI.: Conservation Agriculture in cotton based cropping system
  • Agron X – Multi-tier cropping system to enhance resource utilization, profitability and Sustainability

2021 - 2022

  • Agronomy 1A: Agronomic requirements of promising pre- release / recently released hirsutum genotypes of cotton
  • Agron V – Technology for organic cotton production
  • Agronomy VI: Conservation Agriculture in cotton based cropping system
  • Agron IX Effect of Bio stimulant on growth and development of cotton
  • Agron X – Multi-tier cropping system to enhance resource utilization, profitability and Sustainability

2022 - 2023

  • Agronomy 1A: Agronomic requirements of promising pre- release / recently released hirsutum genotypes of cotton
  • Agron V – Technology for organic cotton production
  • Agronomy VI.: Conservation Agriculture in cotton based cropping system
  • Agron IX Effect of Bio stimulant on growth and development of cotton
  • Agron X – Multi-tier cropping system to enhance resource utilization, profitability and Sustainability

Entomology


2018 - 2019

  • Ent 1a Screening of breeding material for resistance to insect pests
  • Ent 1b Advanced screening of promising entries for development of repository for sucking pests
  • Ent 2 Seasonal dynamics of cotton pests to develop suitable forecasting model
  • Ent 3 Survey for key and emerging pests in cotton in farmers fields for weekly advisory
  • Ent 4 Estimation of yield losses and management of cotton pink bollworm
  • Ent 6 Validation of IPM module for PBW

2019 – 2020

  • Ent 1a Screening of breeding material for resistance to insect pests
  • Ent 2 Seasonal dynamics of cotton pests to develop suitable forecasting model
  • Ent 3 Survey for key and emerging pests in cotton in farmers fields for weekly advisory
  • Ent 4 Estimation of yield losses and management of cotton pink bollworm
  • Ent 8 Validation of IPM module for cotton insect pests

2020 – 2021

  • Ent 1a Screening of breeding material for resistance to insect pests
  • Ent 2 Seasonal dynamics of cotton pests to develop suitable forecasting model
  • Ent 3 Survey for key and emerging pests in cotton in farmers fields for weekly advisory
  • Ent 5 Management of sucking pests in cotton
  • Ent 7 Validation of IPM module for bollworm (H. armigera, Earias sp, P. gossypiella and Spodoptera litura)

2021 - 2022

  • Ent 1a Screening of breeding material for resistance to insect pests
  • Ent 2 Seasonal dynamics of cotton pests to develop suitable forecasting model
  • Ent 3 Survey for key and emerging pests in cotton in farmers fields for weekly advisory
  • Ent 4 Estimation of yield losses and management of cotton pink bollworm
  • Ent 6: Evaluation of prominent insecticides against bollworm complex of cotton

2022 - 2023

  • Ent 1a Screening of breeding material for resistance to insect pests
  • Ent 2 Seasonal dynamics of cotton pests to develop suitable forecasting model
  • Ent 3 Survey for key and emerging pests in cotton in farmers fields for weekly advisory
  • Ent 4 Integrated Pest Management in cotton
  • Ent 6: Evaluation of prominent insecticides against bollworm complex of cotton

Techonolgies Developed


The package of practices for cotton for the state of Odisha was developed by this centre taking the research findings on crop production and protection technologies and recommendations of ICAR-CICR, Nagpur from time to time.

Varieties released
  • Cotton variety BS 279 has been released for the state of Odisha during the year 2021 vide notification No. CG-DL-E-03022021-224901 by the Gazette of India for normal planting.
  • Cotton variety BS 30 has been released for Central Zone (Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Odisha) both for irrigated and rainfed condition for high density planting system vide notification No. CG-DL-E-28072021-228539 by the Gazette of India.

Genetics and Plant Breeding: RESEARCH ACHIVEMENTS


2018-2019

  • During winter 2018-19, the entries RAH 1076 (2333kg/ha), TSH 367 (2289kg/ha), GSHV 208 (2285kg/ha), RHC 1306 (2244kg/ha), GJHV 554 (2241kg/ha) and TSH 357 (2122kg/ha) in Br. 02(a); the entries TSH 325 (2896kg/ha) TSH 324 (2657kg/ha) and SIMA-5 (2376kg/ha) in Br. 03(a); the entries HS 298 (2231kg/ha)and RHC 1217 (2069kg/ha) in Br. 04(a); the entries BGDHH 1033 (2398kg/ha), RAHH 1011 (2394kg/ha) and RAHH 1022 (2189kg/ha) in Br. 05(a); the entries GISV 298 (2994kg/ha), RHC HD 1420 (2975kg/ha) and CCH 16-5 (2943kg/ha) in Br. 06(a) recorded highest seed cotton yield.

2019-2020

  • During winter 2019-20, the entries TSH 383 (2454 kg/ha), TSH 363 (2417 kg/ha), RHC 1419 (2251 kg/ha), RHC 1409 (2215 kg/ha), Suraj (2089 kg/ha) and CCH 19-2 (1964 kg/ha in Br. 02(a); the entries RAH 1075 (2312 kg/ha), TCH 1837 (2260 kg/ha) and TSH 357 (2249 kg/ha) in Br. 03(a); the entries SIMA-5 (2492 kg/ha), RHC 1217 (2294 kg/ha) and TSH 325 (2136 kg/ha) in Br. 04(a); the entries Mallika (2586 kg/ha), RAHH 1951 (2347 kg/ha), RAHH 1952 (2282 kg/ha) in Br. 05(a); the entries RHC HD 1438 (2510 kg/ha), LHDP 5 (2431 kg/ha) and Suraj (2378 kg/ha) in Br. 06(a) recorded highest seed cotton yield.
  • The promising entries identified from 2019-20 AICRP on Cotton trials namely RHC 1409, RHC HD 1433, RB 615, BS 7-19, GJHV 566, LHDP 5, RAHC 1028, LHDP 2, RHC HD 1438, CPD 1902, RAH 1047, CCH 19-2, CPD 1901, RB 614, GISV 323, TSH 363 and RAH 1046 for compact plant type, yield and fibre properties were utilized in crossing programme during winter 2020.

2020-2021

  • During winter 2020-21, the entries GISV 328 (2190 kg/ha), RAH 1081 (2181 kg/ha), TSH 387 (2106 kg/ha), RB 602 (2032 kg/ha), BS 10-20 (2005 kg/ha) and GJHV 548 (1937 kg/ha) in Br. 02(a); the entries TSH 383 (2279 kg/ha), RHC 1409 (2122 kg/ha) and CPD 1902 (1830 kg/ha) in Br. 03(a); the entries TSH 325 (2107 kg/ha), CPD 1701 (2010 kg/ha) and RAH 1075 (1969 kg/ha) in Br. 04(a); the entries BGDHH 2013 (2399 kg/ha), RAHH 2011 (2264 kg/ha), RAHH 2012 (2129 kg/ha) in Br. 05(a); the entries RHC-HD 1438 was (2516 kg/ha), LHDP5 (2405kg/ha), RHC-HD (1312kg/ha) and CCH 19-2 (2042kg/ha) in Br. 06(a) recorded highest seed cotton yield.

2021-2022

  • Promising entries namely, TSH 387 and TSH 354 for Br. 02(a) NT and TSH 337 and TSH 358 for Br. 02(b) NT were nominated for evaluation under Initial Evaluation Trial of G. hirsutum during winter 2020-21. Among the entries, TSH 387 recorded an average seed cotton yield of 2335kg/ha over 6 locations (Fifth rank) than the zonal check Suraj (1926kg/ha) and therefore the culture TSH 387 were promoted to Br. 03(a) SZ for evaluation during winter 2021-22.
  • Promising culture TSH 387 is nominated for ART during 2022-23 to test under winter and summer irrigated conditions.
  • The promising cultures viz., TSH 486, TSH 489 and TSH 498 were nominated to MLT evaluation during 2022-23 under winter and summer irrigated seasons.

2022-2023

  • The promising entry TSH 387 recorded an average seed cotton yield of 2323 kg/ha over 4 locations (Second rank) than the zonal check Suraj (2011 kg/ha) and local check SVPR 6 (2047 kg/ha) in South Zone AICRP trial evaluation during winter 2021-22 and promoted to second year Br. 04(a) trail during 2022 -23.. The yield increase was 15.5 % and 13.4 % over zonal and local checks, respectively. This entry also proposed for conducting ART under irrigated and summer conditions during 2022-23.

AGRONOMY: RESEARCH ACHIVEMENTS


  • In an experiment on evaluation of cotton genotypes for spacing and fertilizer requirement it was revealed that the spacing 90 cm x 60 cm recorded the highest plant height (102.37 cm), lowest number of monopodia (1.57) and highest number of sympodia (13.69) as compared to the other two spacings. However, the number of bolls/m2 (116.53), boll weight (4.71 g) and seed cotton yield (2306 kg/ha) was the maximum with the spacing S3 (90 cm x 30 cm). 125 % RDF recorded the maximum plant height (101.90 cm), lowest number of monopodia (1.54), highest number of sympodia (13.11), highest boll weight (4.78 g) as compared to the other two levels of fertilizer. The number of bolls per m2 (88.27) and seed cotton yield (2472 kg/ha) was also maximum with 125 % RDF. (2018-19)
  • The combination of intercrops cluster bean and onion of each row or two rows of cluster bean intercropping were found to be highly suitable.
  • A spacing of 75 x 30 cm with 100% N of 80 kg/ha was required for higher growth and yield of the pre release variety RAH 1075.
  • For higher economic benefits of organic cotton, combined practice of seed treatment soil application of bio fertilizer, raising of sunhemp and incorporation before flowering, and PPFM foliar application was required.
  • Zero tillage with 100 per cent residue application was technically feasible for cotton – maize cropping system under irrigated condition for higher yield, lesser labour use and cost of cultivation besides higher economic benefits

ENTOMOLOGY : RESEARCH ACHIVEMENTS


  • In the advanced screening trial, it was revealed that the genotypes viz., GISV 310, GISV 319 and JK 4 recorded 16.36 q/ha, 16.05 q/ha and 15.43 q/ha seed cotton yield, respectively and were found tolerant to sucking pests like aphids, jassids and thrips (2018-19)
  • Br 04 (a) 2212, 2213, 2214, 2215, 2216 found to be moderately resistant to leaf hopper
  • Flonicamide 50% WG 75 g a.i. ha-1 was found to be more effective for the control of sucking pests in cotton
  • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @150 ml/ha was found to be more effective for the management of boll worm complex in cotton

  • Cotton farmer, Sri. Ravikanth of Nidumukkala village cotton crop in an area of 20 acres during 2017-18. Due to PBW incidence in that year he has not reaped any yields. During 2019-20, he has reduced his cotton area from 20 acres to 10 acres. He voluntarily came forward to implement the project activities and successfully managed PBW in his 10 acres of cotton field and could record net profit of Rs. 20,000/- per acre. Due to confidence in IRM strategies heha decided to revert back to cultivate 20 acres during 2019-20
  • Valeti. Anil Kumar, Bezathpuram: Has produced 25.63 q/ha of seed cotton. Inspite of bad season during this year due to continuous heavy rains, by adopting IRM practices against pink bollworm, Anil Kumar has succeeded in producing more yield per ha in 2020
  • Nidumukkala Ravi, Mothadaka, Tadikonda (Mandal), Guntur (District): Has produced 37.50 q/ha of seed cotton. Even though there was highly irregular trajectory monsoon season during this year which leads to continuous heavy rains but by adopting IRM practices against pink bollworm, Ravi has succeeded in producing more yield per ha in 2021

Name of the FarmerMr.Nidumukkala Ravi
Address : Mothadaka, Thadikonda (Mandal), Guntur District.
Taluka – Dediyapada
District – Narmada
Mobile No.9849887585
Age.45
Education9th standard
Landholding30 acres
Area under Project 1 acre
Source of IrrigationRainfed
Guidance received from implementing centerRARS, Lam, Guntur
AchievementsHe was achieved 41.17 % increase in production and 68.75 % increase in income over previous year
Yield (qt/ha)40
Yield in non IRM field (qt/ha)22

Name of the FarmerMr.Vanga Naveen Reddy
Address : Jonnalagadda, Tadikonda (Mandal), Guntur District.
Mobile No.9963181999
Age.50
Education10th standard
Landholding2 acres
Area under Project 1 acre
Source of IrrigationRainfed
Guidance received from implementing centerRARS, Lam, Guntur
Achievements He was achieved 14.28 % increase in production and 20 % increase in income over previous year
Yield (qt/ha)35
Yield in non IRM field (qt/ha)32

Challenge: Pink bollworm, a hidden pest
Initiative: Integrated Protection Measures against Cotton Pests and Diseases, especially, Pink bollworm
Key Result: Improvement in quantity and quality of seed cotton.
Impact: Farmer, Sri. R. Lakshman Naik realized seed cotton yield of 30q/ha during 2021-22 as against 20q/ha during 2020-21 as a result of critical interventions including seed treatment against sucking pests and seed and soil-borne diseases, mass trapping, use of Trichocards, spraying neem products, timely plant protection measures, timely termination of crop etc.
Lesson learned: Awareness on Pink bollworm management strategies in cotton, extending the project for some years to increase the beneficiaries.

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