ALL INDIA COORDINATED COTTON IMPROVEMENT PROJECT - CENTERS


RAHURI

Research Achievements in Last Five Years

Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri has released two hybrids and one variety during 2001-06.

The intra hirsutum (h x h) hybrid Phule-492 has recorded 20% higher yield than NHH-44. Tolerant to parawilt, sucking pests and ALB, BLB diseases. It is suitable for double cropping as it matures in 150-160 days.

Inter specific ( h x b) hybrid Phule-388 has given 38% higher yield over the existing long staple hybrid DCH-32. It is tolerant to para wilt and sucking pests. In view of its superiority in yield and yarn properties it is released for summer irrigated area of Deccan Canal tract.

A Deshi cotton (G. arboreum) variety JLA-794 has produced 25 per cent higher yield than Y1. It has superior yarn properties than other deshi cotton varieties grown in the Khandesh tract.

Six recommendations in respect of agro techniques and two on disease management have been developed and released during 2001-2006, to ensure high production and better fibre quality. Large number of FLD'S on improved varieties inter cropping, nutrient management, IPM, IDM have been conducted and farmers have been made to realize advantages in reaping higher yield with low production cost.

Breeders seed production has been met fully without any mismatch. Farm mechanization and human resources has been addressed.

Rahuri centre has collected and maintained more than 19 species and races (11) of cultivated cotton and are being utilized for introgression of desirable genes. The summery of work done as below.

Wild Gossypium species are a rich source of resistance genes, therefore interspecific hybridization of cultivated Gossypium species followed by breeding resulted in genotypes with improved characters. Among all the various techniques used, embryo rescue was found to be most successful to obtain difficult crosses of Gossypium species. Application of hormones such as GAA, NAA (Altman, 1988 and Mehetre et al., 2002 d) at the time of crossing need to be practiced to facilitate better hybridization.

Intensive hybridization both at diploid x diploid, diploid x tetraploid levels utilizing haploids of tetraploid, G. hirsutum cotton, auto polyploidy of cultivated diploids G. arboreum and G. herbaceum as well as first and second generations (A1 and A2, respectively) with varieties of tetraploid cotton G. hirsutum and G. barbadense by conventional and biotechnological approaches and confirmed hybridity at molecular level.

Characters of the wild African diploid G. anomalum (2n=2x=26 B1 B1) like extremely fine fibre with high maturity, good strength, low fibre weight, resistance to insect pests, immunity to black arm (angular leaf spot) and its narrow bracts ensure clean picking. Lint fineness is already transferred from G. anomalum to the cultivated G. arboreum (2n=2x=26 A1 A1). Synthesized allopolyploids of G. arboreum x G. anomalum are fertile, thus paved the possibilities in transferring useful interspecific genes to cultivated American (g. hirsutum) cottons. The derivatives of synthesized amphidiploid (C1) of G. arboreum x G. anomalum had very high (35.0 g/tex) fibre strength. Thus, confirming an excellent source for transferring high fibre strength to the cultivated tetraploid G. hirsutum or G. barbadense cottons. Few germinable selfed seeds were obtained from amphidiploid and a population of nine adult plants (C21 to 9) was raised. These plants were crossed with G. hirsutum varieties with a view to combine desirable characters of G. anomalum, G. arboreum and G. hirsutum.

 

Dr S.S. Mehetre
Sr.Scientist (Cotton),
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth,
Rahuri - 413 722
MAHARASHTRA 

Phone no: 02426-33449(O) 43101(R)

Fax no: 02426-243208 243223 243227

Email : rahuri_aiccip@yahoo.com