ALL INDIA COORDINATED COTTON IMPROVEMENT PROJECT - CENTERS


NANDYAL

In the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh cotton is an important commercial crop and is grown in an area of 1.5 lakh hectares. A sub-centre of All India Coordinated cotton Improvement Project (AICCIP) was started at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nandyal from May 1972. This sub-centre is intended for evolving early, high yielding and quality type cottons suitable for Scarce Rainfall Zone comprising the districts of Kurnool, Kadapa and Anantapur.

The Nandyal Sub-centre of AICCIP caters to the needs of central cotton growing Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh where cotton cultivars belonging to G.hirsutum and G.arboreum are predominantly grown, in addition to the intra-hirsutum hybrids of cotton. At present American cotton varieties Narasimha, Priya, LRA-5166, MCU-5; Desi cotton varieties Aravinda, Srisailam, Y-1 and Pandaripur Mungari cotton; Intra-specific hirsutum hybrids, NHH-390, NHH-44, Savita, Bunny and Bt cotton hybrids are under cultivation in black and red soils of this track under rainfed as well as I.D. conditions.

Technologies Developed

A.Plant Breeding:

Recently released Varieties / Hybrids:

Sri Nandi -NDLA.2463 (G.arboreum) :

This new variety was tested at RARS, Nandyal from 1999 to 2003 and found to record an average seed cotton yield 1993 kg/ha. as against 1650 kg/ha. of Aravinda with 21% increased yield over the check. In the over all performance of station trials, minikits and large demonstrations, it recorded 23% increased yield (2012 kg/ha)of seed cotton over Aravinda. It possessed mean fibre length of 22 mm and mean G.P of 36.5%. This spins upto 30's counts. This variety was released in the year 2006 for cultivation.

Nandyal cotton Hybrid-NDLHH-240 (intra-hirsutum) :

The hybrid NDLHH-240 was tried at RARS, Nandyal for a period of 5 years from 2000-2001 to 2004-2005. In the hybrid vigour trials under 1 D. Conditions this has recorded on an average 2762 kg/ha. as against 2239 kg/ha. of NHH-44 the check.

This hybrid was also tested in Karnataka and Tamilnadu (AICCIP trials) and recorded 15% increased yield over NHH-44, the check.

This improved cotton hybrid NDLHH-240 was also tried in minikits and LSD plots both by the Department of Agriculture and KVK, Banaganapalli on farmers fields. On an average NDLHH-240 has recorded 27% increased yield over NHH-44 the check.

In the overall performances from all the trials conducted NDLHH-240 has recorded on an average 26% increased seed cotton yield over NHH-44 the check. NDLHH-240 possessed mean staple length of 29.6 mm and mean ginning out turn of 36.6% as against 23.5 mm fibre length and 34.5% G.P. of NHH-44 the check. This hybrid is recommened for cultivation in rainfed as well as 1 D situations in black cotton soils of Rayalaseema districts of A.P.

Promising pre-release varieties/Hybrids in pipelines:

NDLA-2933 (G.arboreum Variety):

This is high yielding, early maturing, drought tolerant Desi cotton variety for Mungari season. This has big boll size compared to Aravinda. This is in the stage of minikit trials.

NDLHH-228 (Intra-hirsutum cotton hybrid):

This is high yielding, early maturing, quality type of hybrid cotton. This has a big bolls with staple length of 30 mm and GOT of 38% suitable for both rainfed /1D situations. This is in the stage of Minikit trials.

NDLH-1755 (G. hirsutum Variety ):

After extensive hybridization and selection programmes this promising high yielding, short duration selection was identified and isolated. This is a derivative of the cross NA-1290xKrishna. NDLH-1755 has recorded 23% increased seed cotton yield over the check Narasimha in the overall performance. It recorded average seed cotton yield of 1844 kg/ha. as against 1470 kg/ha. of Narasimha. In all India coordinated cotton Improvement project (AICCIP) trials, this has registered 18% increased yield over the check. It possesses staple length of 28 mm and ginning outturn of 38% with an average boll weight of 5g. This was found to spin 40's counts. It is recommended for cultivation in black soils of Rayalaseema region of A.P.

Agronomy

  • Maximum kapas yield was recorded with irrigation in alternate furrows.
  • Alachlor @ 1.5 kg a.i ha -1 and pendimethalin @ 1.5 kg a.i ha -1 were found effective in controlling the weeds in cotton crop and safe.
  • Soil application of zinc (50 kg ha -1 ) and boron 20 kg ha -1 recorded higher kapas yield.
  • Recommended dose of NPK + 10 t FYM ha -1 gave higher seed cotton yield under irrigated conditions.
  • Fertigation with 125% recommended dose of N & K applied as 10% basal with remaining 90% from 30-120 days in 9 splits recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield as compared to control with recommended manual fertilizer application.
  • Higher net returns were recorded with intercropping of cotton with cluster bean.

Entomology

  • Demonstration on the Management of PBW through mating disruption technique using Pheromone PB Rope L ? :Considering the need to find out a suitable measure to control PBW, a large scale demonstration was under taken in the farmers fields (150 acres). The results showed that the lowest no. of moth catch of 198 for five months from September, 2004 to January, 2005 was recorded in the demonstrated block as against 12,478 moths/trap in the control block for the same period. Once the PB Rope L was applied in the experimental area during September, 2004 the moth catches of the PBW in the traps immediately declined to nearly zero and low till the end of December.
  • Diapausing behaviour of pink bollworm : PBW undergoes diapause in the larval stage resulting in pest carryover to the next crop. PBW at Nandyal were found to have facultative diapause. Larvae collected during October, November, December and January did not undergo diapause as the adults emerged within 12 - 18 days. Incidence of initial diapause started from the last week of February and reach its peak in May. Emergence of PBW moths from diapausing larvae was noticed with the onset of mansoon during June and was completed by second week of August. Irrespective of larvae that had undergone diapause in different months, the maximum emergence from these larvae was recorded in Jun and July.
  • Studies on the Rosette flowers, the early symptom of PBW incidence : Early occurance of PBW can be determined by the presence of Rosette flowers. More than 80% of Rosette flowers were shed and only 20% of them formed into bolls. However, these bolls had bad opening with low grade kapas. With this background, a demonstration was conducted and farmers were instructed to destruct the rosette flowers in the field. Four women labour were required per acre for the destruction of rosette flowers. Destruction of rosette flowers integrated with the insecticidal spray resulted in low incidence of bad opened bolls.
  • Evaluation of Insecticides against Pinkbollworm: Among the six insecticides tested against pinkbollworm , thiodicarb (1.5ml/li) and quinalphos (2ml/li) recorded with highest yield of 1146 kg/ha and 1044 kg/ha respectively. The two synthetic pyrethroids, cypermethrin and lambda cyhalothrin although resulted in decreased percent of bolldamage, there was resurgence of cotton mealybug.
  • Evaluation of newer molecules against Jassids : Six insecticides were evaluated against the sucking pests of cotton for two years. Imidacloprid @ 100 ml/ha recorded the lowest jassid injury grade (I) with highest yield, (822kg/ha) followed by thiomethoxam (797kg/ha). Among the six insecticides tested, thiomathoxam was superior in managing thrips population in cotton.
  • Evaluation of efficacy of newer molecules against whitefly : As whitefly became serious pest on cotton during 1995-96 and it affected the cotton yields to a greater extent, the following insecticides were evaluated against whitefly. During 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 six insecticides were evaluated against whitefly. Acetamiprid @ 40g ai/ha and thiomethoxam @ 100 g ai/ha, showed lowest population with highest yield of 870 Kg/ha and 868 Kg/ha respectively. These two insecticides were recommended for whitefly management at the Annual group meeting of AICCIP. These insecticides were also effective against thrips.
  • Evaluation of newer molecules against Helicoverpa armigera : Indoxacarb and thiodicarb were recommended for the management of Helicoverpa armigera. Among four insect growth regulators evaluated against bollworms RH 2485 @ 300 g / ha recorded the lowest bolldamage (8.63), locule damage (10.43) and highest yield (938 kg/ha)followed by novoluron (843kg/ha) and lufenuron (722 kg/ha). Novoluron (Rimon) is also effective against the early instars of Spodoptera litura. Spinosad with new A:D ratio at three levels along with NNI 0001 were evaluated against bollworms using tracer as standard check. Spinosad with new A:D ratio at 100gai/ha were on par with each other followed by NNI 0001 @ 100gai/ha. Spinosad 45 SC (W/W) (Spinosyn A 50% Min and Spinosyn D 50% Max) @100 g ai/ha recorded the lowest percent square damage (1.72), boll damage (2.6) and recorded highest yield (536.33 Kg/ha). NNI 0001 @ 60 g ai/ha recorded 2.67 and 3.53 percent square and boll damage respectively.
  • In addition to the above insecticides, the other insecticides from private companies were also evaluated as directed by the University. NNI 0001 (M/s Bayer company) was evaluated and recommended against the bollworms and this compound was registered in the name of flubendiamide. Thiodicarb was evaluated against bollworms and this insecticide released in the name of Larvin. Indoxacarb was evaluated against Helicoverpa armigera and released in the name of avaunt. Fuzon (Pasura Biotech Ltd.) was evaluated (2004-05) against bollworms. BAS (BASF India Ltd.) was evaluated (2004 - 05) against bollworms and registered as spiromesifen.
  • Development and evaluation of location specific IPM modules for cotton based cropping systems: ANGRAU Module was evaluated against the Bio-intensive IPM module, farmer method, ETL based plant protection and control. Among the five modules evaluated, ANGRAU module recorded highest cost benefit ratio (1:3.03) with highest net returns. These module includes the components like seed treatment with thiomethoxam, stem application with monocrotophas or imidacloprid at 40 and 60 DAS to manage aphids and Jassids, Pheromone trap monitoring, Growing of trap crops against Spodoptera litura (Castor) and Helicoverpa armigera (Marygold) and boarder crops (Maize / jowar). Early spraying with 5 % NSKE / endosulfan, restricting the use of synthetic pyrethroids to twice in the season at peak flowering, destruction of rosette flowers, allowing grazing of retained bolls by cattle burning of stubbles and need based application of recommended insecticides at ETL.
  • Influence of inter cropping on population dynamics of key pests of cotton : Various legumes and non legumes were grown in 1:1 ratio with rainfed cotton. In the initial stages the population of sucking pests were in decreasing trend due to the increase in the natural enemy activity. But the scanty and erratic distribution of rainfall resulted in decreased yields in cotton when inter cropped with other crops in 1:1 ratio than sole crop of cotton. Hence one / two rows of Cowpea / Maize may be intercropped with cotton ( 2:10 ratio) without affecting yield and natural enemy activity.
  • Studies on population dynamics of keypests of cotton for the development of forecasting models: The data on the incidence of keypests of cotton is recording regularly and the database is available. The development of forecasting models using stepdown regression is in progress.
  • Mealy bug incidence on cotton : The incidence of Mealybugs in the scare rainfall zone of Andhra Pradesh was noticed from the year 2002 onwards after the introduction of MECH-12 Bt cotton hybrid. Its spread is progressively extending to all other cotton genotypes. This observation was first noticed and reported from RARS, Nandyal, the scarce rainfall zone of A.P.
  • Incidence of Nazara viriduala on Cotton : During October, 2005 the incidence of green stink bug, Nazara viridulla was reported. These bugs were sucking sap from green developing bolls resulting in damage of not only seed but also lint.

Dr Bhasha Mohiddin
Cotton Breeder (AICCIP),
Regional Agrl. Research Station,
Nandyal - 518 503
ANDHRA PRADESH
 

Phone no: 08514 - 242296(O) 246815 242310(R)

Email : nandyal_aiccip@yahoo.com