INDIA COORDINATED COTTON IMPROVEMENT PROJECT - CENTERS


KHANDWA

Salient Achievements at Khandwa

Crop Improvement :

Arboreum Genotypes

Variety Jawahar Tapti : In the early fifties, when desi cotton was very popular among the cultivators a variety Maljari was developed as a result of cross between Malvi 9 and Jarilla, which remained popular for a long time until upland cotton ( Hirsutum ) took over. However in recent years the complex pest problem in hirsutum with dwindling yield levels particularly under adverse climatic situations a reverse trend of cultivation of desi cotton seems to have set in. This development led to the formulation of systematic breeding programme involving diverse cultures NA 48, NA 39, G.27 and NA 32 with Maljari as a base. As a result of recurrent selection a series of cultures were synthesized and evaluated in AICCIP trials. A strain KWA 3 performed very well in the coordinated trial and consistently stood in the best five entries in the central zone. This is a significant achievement over Maljari with 30-40% higher potential 37% ginning and spinning potential up to 30 counts. It is early maturing and can be cultivated under rainfed condition with low in put. This culture has been released in as Jawahar Tapti for entire state.

Variety Sarvottam: Selection from of interspecific crosses between arboreum and herbaceum lines a variety was obtained with high yield potential combined with good fibre properties (30 counts and 23 mm length). This variety is suitable for almost all types of soils (deep, medium and shallow). It is also suitable for problematic soils particularly in extreme grades of salinity. Proposal for releasing this genotype will be submitted shortly.

Naked seeded arboreum : - The demand of textile industries and the oil industries for naked seeded arboreum cotton was considered and a plan of work to achieve this objective was formulated. The demand from the industries was mainly to eliminate or overcome the problem of seed coat fragment and tight ginning. The penetration of insect pests and pathogens in fuzzy seed was another problem. To address these needs, selections were made from the existing arboreum germplasm followed by intercrosses between the promising selections. This has resulted in the development of a few cultures with almost all the desi rable traits especially naked seed with low gossypol content, higher oil content i.e. 21% as compared to 16% in fuzzy arboreum. The striking feature these culture is fibre length in the range of 26-27 mm and fineness value 3.7 mv. This is a significant achievement in identifying arboreum cotton with good fibre properties above 25 mm and spinnable up to 40 counts, suitable for open-end spinning.

KWA 23 (JK-9) :- This arboretum genotype has been performing exceedingly well in the ICAR trials during the last five years. A proposal for release of this variety for the entire cotton growing tract of Madhya Pradesh has already been submitted and is likely to be released soon. Since this variety has ranked first in the central zone for three consecutive years, with yield ( 15-20 Qts/ha )and fibre quality ( superior medium ) comparable to American cotton, it is essential to release this variety. The cost of production is less with higher C:B ratio. This will help the farmers to sustain in the changing competitive scenario under the new WTO regime. This variety has been released by the state in 2005.

Hirsutum Varieties and Intrahirsutum hybrids :

Jawahar Akash (JKHy-3): - This is another important public sector intra-hirsutum hybrid developed by JNKVV, Khandwa . The important feature of this hybrid is its wider adaptability and suitability under both irrigated and rainfed condition. It will replace JKHy-1. The hybrid is tolerant to sucking pests and more resistant to black arm disease. The average yield of this hybrid is 25-30 quintal/ha under irrigated condition and 20-22 quintal/ha under rainfed condition. The hybrid has good plant type. It grows about 110-120 cm. tall and open type.

JK-4 : Another important recent development is a hirsutum variety named JK-4. This variety has been recommended for the entire state under irrigated and rainfed condition. This variety has been found to be tolerant to sucking pests. This variety is suitable wide range of environment.

Variety Jawahar kapas-35 ( CMSH 6 x RCH-2) is an American strain developed through crossing of two CMS F 1 s . Early tolerance to sucking pest as well as to bollworms with high yield potential (18-20 q/ha) under rainfed condition occupying appox. 2000 hectare in Malwa and adjoining Nimar area of M.P. This variety released in 2006 by state varietal release committee.

  • Work on hybrid production through CMS lines has again been initiated and the JICH-8 (CMS VIK x MR 29-4-1-1) a new intra hirsutum CMS hybrid was included in national trial during 2005. But due to lack of good performance further promotion could not be done.
  • Twenty CMS A-line are been maintained by their isogenic B-line (maintainers) with specific markers. It is mainly of harknessii blood. Four fertility restorers are identified and maintained.
  • Eleven cytotypes of different combinations are been maintained with particular objectives concerning drought resistant and tolerance to different sucking pest as well as bollworms.
  • Double cross materials- The linkage between restoration of fertility in CMS lines and serious sucking pest susceptibility broken by adopting double cross technique. New restorers thus indigenously developed utilized for developing new improved 100% restorating male (MR-29-4-4-1 (s), 3 PSA). Simultaneously purification work of double cross restorers (37) with PSA and PSP is under progress. Twenty secondary selections and (20) retentions are also maintained. Similarly 13 F 5 s of DCR lines and 46 SPS lines are also being maintained.
  • Parent of JKHy-1 and JKHy-2 hybrids, K-2 (MB) (13), Reba-B-50 (S) (17), and Vikram (23) are being maintained as nucleus seed.
  • AICCIP trials (National & Central zone) are being conducted as per directives of ICAR.
  • Breeder seed of Khandwa - 2 as K-2 (MB), Reba-B-50 (S) and Vikram are also being maintained and produced as per the indent.

A number of genotypes from both G.hirsutum and G.arboreum categories alongwith intra-hirsutum hybrids have performed exceedingly well in the ICAR testing system both at the National level and Zonal trials as well. As a result, a good number of varieties belonging to both thespecies are ready to be released for commercial cultivation. The list of such genotypes and hybrids is given below :

Pre-release cotton genotypes ( G.hirsutum and G.arboreum ) and intra-hirsutum hybrids developed at Khandwa centre

S.No

Entry

Position of Entry at zonal level (CZ)

Salient Features

HIRSUTUM VARIETIES

1.

KH-112

Completed three years at zonal level and always stood with in top five.

Suitable for rainfed condition , high yielding , Resistant to sucking pests.Drought tolerant ,early maturing and suitable for double cropping system .

2.

KH-107

Completed three years at zonal level and always stood with in top five.

High yielding suitable for both deep as well as shallow soils under rainfed condition and resistant to sucking pests.

3.

KH-113

Completed three years at zonal level and always stood with in top five.

High yielding with high ginning (45%)superior medium fibre quality.

4.

KH-101

Completed three years at zonal level and always stood with in top five.

Superior medium fibre quality, tolerant to bollworm.

Hybrids (HxH) Conventional

5.

 

KHH-111

Completed three years at zonal level and always stood with in top five.

Early maturing and suitable for rainfed condition.

Arboreum varieties

6.

 

KWA-7

Completed Three years testing at zonal level and always stood with in top five rank and ready for release

High yielding , resistant to sucking pests, early maturing ,fibre length 22mm.

7.

 

KWA-23

Completed Three years testing at zonal level and always stood with in top five rank and ready for release

 

High yielding, Superior medium fibre quality.

status of entries from Khandwa centre in ICAR testing system:

The following entries in different categories have been promoted for further testing during 2005-06.

  • KH-151 ( G. hirsutum )has been identified in National trial for further testing in Central Zone under irrigated condition..
  • KH-134 ( G. hirsutum )has been promoted in Central Zone for further testing under rainfed situation.
  • KWA 147 and KWA 148 ( G. arboreum )have been promoted in Central Zone for further testing.
  • Some of our entries in National trials have been identified for promotion and further testing in the South Zone. The entries IH 07 developed at Indore has been identified for testing in South Zone and KH 140 developed at Khandwa has been further promoted in South Zone for testing in advanced trials.
  • Six new entries have been submitted during the current season in the ICAR testing system : PVT of G.hirsutum ( KH 155 & KH 159 ); PHT -Irrigated ( KHH 124 ); PHT- Rainfed (KHH 124); PVT of G.arboreum KWA 227 and KWA 228.
  • One entry under G.hirsutum ( KH 117) category after completion of testing in Central Zone has been identified for Agronomy trials.

Dr R.G. Satpute
Principal Scientist (Breeding)
JNKVV Research Station,
B.M. College of Agriculture,
Khandwa - 450 001
MADHYA PRADESH  

Phone no: 0733-222217(O) 225520(R)

Fax no: 0733-227844

Email : khandwa_aiccip@yahoo.com