ALL INDIA COORDINATED COTTON IMPROVEMENT PROJECT - CENTERS


GUNTUR

The All India Co-ordinated Cotton Improvement Project came into existence in Andhra Pradesh from 1971 season with Regional Agril. Research Station, Lam as main center and Regional Agril. Research Station, Nandyal as sub center. The AICCIP main center Lam caters the needs of coastal region farmers where as Nandyal looks after the research needs of Rayalaseema region. The AICCIP centers Lam and Nandyal are working with following objectives.

  • Development of short duration, stress resistant, high yielding varieties/hybrids with desirable fibre qualities to meet the demands of modern mills.
  • Development of high yielding, multiple pest and disease tolerant varieties by utilizing the wild genomes/genetic engineering.
  • To work out agro techniques for cotton based cropping systems for improving productivity.
  • To evolve package for the newly developed varieties/hybrids and integrated nutrient management practices
  • Physiological management of drought, reddening of leaf, square and boll drop problems.
  • Identification of IPM practices for key pests.
  • Maintenance and promotion of nucleus and breeder seed of released varieties.
  • ACHIEVEMENTS

    Crop Improvement

  • Two whitefly resistant varieties viz ., LPS 141(Kanchana), LK 861 and the first of its kind in the country were developed and released for cultivation during 1987 and 1993, respectively which are very popular among the farmers in whitefly endemic areas.
  • L389 a long staple variety that is resistant to blackarm, was released in 1993 and popular among the farmers due to its superior quality.
  • Lam hybrid-1, a short duration hybrid suitable for cultivation in both Kharif and rice-fallows was released in 1987 for coastal Andhra Pradesh and Northern Telangana region. It is also tolerant to wilt of unknown etiology.
  • A medium duration, high yielding, jassid and blackarm resistant cotton hybrid NSPHH 5 is released in 2002.
  • A medium duration, high yielding, drought tolerant variety L 761 is in pre-released stage.
  • High yielding and jassid tolerant varieties L 763 and L 765 are in minikit trials.
  • L761, the high yielding cotton variety, which is in pre-release stage is identified for Bt. gene incorporation due to its desirable characteristics and wide adaptability.
  • L 603 and L 389 local varieties were converted into CMS base.
  • LAMCH 5 (CMS) and LAMGH-6 (GMS), intra hirsutum male sterile hybrids were developed. The hybrids were found to be promising with high yield coupled with desirable properties and are in advanced stage of testing.

Characteristics of varieties and hybrids released so far

Variety /Hybrid

Year of release

Yield (q/ha)

Duration (days)

Ginning (%)

2.5 span length(mm)

Counts

Remarks

Varieties

LK-861

1993

25-26

170

34

29

50

Immune to whitefly

LPS-141

1987

24-25

170

34

26

40

Resistant to whitefly

L-603

1997

25-30

150-160

35

28

40

Tolerant jassids

L-604

1997

25-30

150-160

36

27

40

Tolerant jassids

Hybrids

LAHH4

1997

35

160-170

35

27

40

Wider Adaptability

Lam Hybrid 5

2002

32-35

160-165

35

29

40

Resistant to BLB cercospora

Lam Hybrid 7

2006

34-35

160-170

36

32

40

Resistant to jassids

  • The arborium entries named Mahanandi, Raghavendra, Srisailam, Aravinda, Srinandi (NDLA-2463). hirsutum entries namely Mahalakshmi, Fedraj, Vijaya lakshmi, Priya, Narasimha. Hybrids entries namely Bhagya lakshmi, NHH-390, Nandyal cotton hybrid-240(NDLHH-240) were released for cultivation.
  • The variety Narasimha which was released in the year 1994 is best suited for vertisors having wider adoptability in NHH-390 and NDLHH-240 are interaspecific hybrids with higher yields released for both rainfed and irrigated conditions.
  • Crop Production

  • Developed a package for promotion of INM in cotton involving the use of organics along with recommended doses of NPK for obtaining sustainable yield.
  • Topping at 100 days after sowing or at 15-18 sympodial branches stage was recommended to the farmers to avoid egg laying by Helicoverpa on tender leaves and to provide adequate nutrition to the young bolls and for the better development of seeds in the already formed bolls.
  • Foliar application of 2% DAP or Urea and 1% MOP showed positive results in improving cotton yields. The technology has been popularized among the cotton farmers.
  • The implications of micronutrients deficiencies have been documented and correction measures were worked out. Foliar spray of Magnesium Sulphate (1%), Zinc Sulphate (0.2%) and Boron (0.15%) were recommended for obtaining high seed cotton yield.
  • Among the entries screened for drought tolerance, L 604, L 613, LRA 5166, CWROK 165, RAH 100, CNH 120 MB showed positive results.
  • The entries Viz.L 613, C 256-4, CPD 473, JK 276-8-2, L 604, L 603, LK 861, NSPHH 1, L760 ,L 722, L 713, L 719, CWROK 165, TCH 1569, G cot H 8 and RAH 100 exhibited tolerance to salinity and can be used for future crop improvement programme towards salinity tolerance.
  • Identified drought tolerant entries viz. L 604, CWROK 165 and CNH 120 MB were taken as one of the parent material in breeding programme at RARS, Lam
  • Alachlor @1.5 kg a.i ha -1 and pendimethalin @1.5 kg ha -1 were found effective in controlling the weeds in cotton crop and safe.
  • Soil application on of zine (50 kg ha -1 ) and boron 20 kg ha-1 recorded higher kapas yield.
  • Fertigation with 125% recommended dose of N & K applied as 10% basal with remaining 90% from 30-120 days in 9 splits recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield as compared to control with recommended manual fertilizer application.
  • Crop Protection

  • Bio-ecology of green jassid, white fly, american boll worm and pink boll worm have been documented for understanding their weak links for management.
  • A total of 2355 cotton germplasm cultures developed at different centres across the country were screened so far for resistance/tolerance to different insect pests and found the following varieties promising against the pests.
  • Jassids : LRA 5166, MCU 5, B 1007, L 604, L 603, NA 1325, Savitha, HB 1 and L 613.

    White fly : D 53, LPS 141, LK 861 and JK 286.

    Helicoverpa: FBRN 2-6, LK 861, L 604, Abhadita, RCH 2, NA 1325, NHH 44 and Anjali.

  • Economic threshold levels and population dynamics in relation to peak activity of key pests have also been worked out which are by and large adopted by the cotton growers to time the control intervention.
  • Seed treatment with carbosulfan (25DS) at 40-50 g/kg of seed or imidachloprid 70 WS at 5-8 g/kg and Thiomethoxam 5g/kg of seed was found effective and economical against soil insects and early season sucking pests.
  • A cost effective new technique of application of insecticides to the main stem (stem application technique) of cotton plant at 20,40 and 60 DAS has been developed and found most effective against jassids and aphids. The significant feature of the new technique is that it does not cause any harm to biological control agents which are the most important component of IPM.
  • Intercropping with 2-3 rows of soybean, groundnut, cowpea, cluster bean etc. in cotton was found to be highly advantageous besides promoting the build up of bio control agents and serve as an important component of IPM.
  • Marigold and castor were identified as the effective trap crops for Helicoverpa and Spodoptera respectively
  • A period of 120-180 days in cotton crop development have been identified as critical for management of boll worms for obtaining maximum yields.
  • Neem seed kernal extract, sesame oil, neem oil, nuclear polyhedrosis virus have been identified as the effective additives against bollworms in cotton to rationalize and maximize chemical interventions.
  • Evolve IPM package for Helicoverpa and whitefly. The package was widely adopted by the cotton farmers of Andhra Pradesh and other states in the country as well.
  • Bio efficacy of several new insecticides molecules like triazophos and profenophos for whitefly, imidacloprid, thiomethoxam and acetamiprid for sucking pests, Bt. formulations and spinosad 45 SC, thiodicarb, emamectin, benzoate and indoxicarb for bollworm have been successfully established.
  • Documented the baseline data on insecticides resistance in American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera and evolved the insecticide resistant management (IRM) strategies.
  • Documented the bio-eulogy of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders.
  • Established the efficacy of mating disruption pheromone for pink bollworm management.
  • The seasonal occurrence of disease complex has been documented in respect of time and space. Identified resistant varieties like L 389, L 603, L 604 for bacterial blight and LK 861 and LAHH 4 for both bacterial blight and alternaria leaf blight. Identified cost effective control measures for the major diseases.

Dr K.V. Krishna Rao
Sr.Scientist (Cotton),
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agrl. University,
Agrl. Research Station,
Lam Farm,
Guntur - 522 034
ANDHRA PRADESH  

Phone no: 0863-2524169(O) 2524017(O) 2359366(R)

Fax no: 0863-2524073

Email : guntur_aiccip@yahoo.com