ALL INDIA COORDINATED COTTON IMPROVEMENT PROJECT - CENTERS


AKOLA

Technologies Developed

Cotton Breeding:

  • Till date this centre has released five varieties and two hybrid of G.arboreum while four varieties and four hybrids of G.hirsutum .
  • PKV Hy-3 is the first commercial hybrid in the world, based on cytoplasmic male sterility released for cultivation in 1993..
  • In cotton, G.harknessii is the only source for cytoplasmic male sterility. Therefore there may be danger of uniformity and narrow genetic base. To overcome these problems, the attempt was made at Dr. PDKV, Akola to develop alternate source of cytoplasmic male sterility in cotton and successfully developed an alternate source of cytoplasmic male sterility in tetraploid cotton by using a wild species, G.aridum .
  • To ease the hybrid seed production in diploid cotton male sterility is one of the means for utilization of heterosis. Therefore, by using a wild species G.anomalum a new source of genetic male sterility was developed and utilized for the development of hybrid PKV DH-1 released in 2002 and AKDH-5 released in 2006.
  • Wild species G. aridum, G. raimondii, G. thurberi and G. anomalum are utilized for the introgression of various economic characters and genetic markers from wild species to cultivated species. The varieties with introgressed characters are given below

Variety

Pedigree

Wild species utilized

AKH-081

G 47/4 X LL P 001

 

PKV-RAJAT

(AC-938XSRT-1)X G.aothur

G. anomalum andG. thurberi

AKA-8401

AKH-4X G. anomalum

G. anomalum

Significant Achievements:

1) Improvement in yield:

In India , significant improvement has been achieved in cotton yield after independence. The present average (2004-2005) lint yield of cotton is 440 Kg/ha, which was only 81 kg/ha during 1947–1948. Moreover, the present average seed cotton yield of best variety/ hybrid is 40 qt/ha, which was only 15 qt/ha during 1947–1948. This increase in yield could be achieved through development of high yielding varieties and hybrids. Hybrids with high yield potential have been released in American cotton exploiting heterosis to the maximum extent from Dr. PDKV, Akola. F 1 hybrids PKV Hy.-2, PKV Hy.-4 and PKV Hy.-5 are most notable among them released for Vidarbha region and central India. In Deshi cotton PKV DH-1 is a recently released high yielding hybrid for Vidarbha region from this university. Improved high yielding varieties of Deshi cotton like AKH-4, AKA-5 , AKA-8401, AKA-7, AKA-8 (recently released in 2005) and American cotton varieties like DHY-286, AKH-081, PKV Rajat and AKH-8828 (recently released in 2005) were contributed to increased yield in rainfed cotton belt of Vidarbha as well as central India.

2) Improvement in quality:

In cotton, fibre or lint is the main product. Fibre quality includes fibre length, strength, fineness, maturity and uniformity. The spinning capacity is also an indication of fibre quality. Significant achievement have been made in fibre quality especially fibre length and spinning capacity. Long staple Deshi cotton variety AKA-8401 released in 1989 having 26-27 mm staple length, 40s spinability count, 38% ginning outturn. While American cotton hybrid PKV Hy-4 released in 1996 having 30.2 mm staple length, 50s spinability count and PKV Hy-5 with 60s counts released in 2002. AKH-8828, a hirsutum variety highest in ginning outturn, 41 – 42 % with good fibre quality released in 2005 for general cultivation in Vidarbha region.

3)Improvement in adoptability:

PKV Hy-2 released in 1981 is having wider adoptability and tolerant to sucking pests and still it is under cultivation since last 24 years. The variety AKH-081 is extra early and having drought escape mechanism suitable for light and shallow soil. This variety matures in 140-150 days and suitable for double cropping system. PKV Rajat released in 1994 is popularly grown in saline tract of Vidarbha since it is tolerant to saline soil conditions.

4) Insect resistance:

Cotton crop is attacked by several insect pests resulting in considerable losses in yield. The genetic resistance is the cheapest and the best way of reducing such losses in yield. In Dr. PDKV, Akola, work on insect resistance breeding has been done successfully. The varieties resistant to jassids were released by Dr. PDKV, Akola are given below.

Variety

Year of release

DHY-286

1975

PKV Hy.-2

1981

AKH-081

1987

PKV Rajat

1994

AKH-8828

2005

5) Earliness:

Earliness is a desirable character in cotton which has several advantages. Early varieties permit multiple cropping systems, escape from late season pests and reduce cost on pesticidal sprays and crop management resulting in reduction in the cost of cultivation.

In cotton, the period required for maturity has been significantly reduced. Most of the earlier cotton varieties used to mature in 240–270 days. While the American cotton varieties AKH-081 matures only in 140–150 days. Similarly, hybrids attain maturity during 230–240 days. The maturity duration has been reduced to 160–170 days in PKV Hy.-5. In Deshi cotton, the early variety AKA-7 takes 140–150 days to mature as against 210 days in late varieties with comparatively less incidence of pink bollworm .

The popular varieties and hybrids developed and released by this centre are given in Table 3 and 4.

Table 3: G.arboreum / G.hirsutum cotton varieties:

 

Variety

Species

Year of release

GOT (%)

Mean fibre length (mm)

Spinning potential (counts)

Staple category

AKH-4

G.arboreum

1975

38

24.0

20s

Medium

AKA-5

G.arboreum

1981

39

22.5

20s

Medium

AKA-8401

G.arboreum

1989

38

27.0

40s

Long

AKA-7

G.arboreum

1998

41

23.0

30s

Medium

AKA-8

G.arboreum

2005

38

26.0

40 S

Medium

DHY-286

G.hirsutum

1975

35

26.0

40 S

Medium

AKH-081

G.hirsutum

1987

38

26.0

40 S

Medium

PKV-Rajat

G.hirsutum

1994

39

25.0

30s

Medium

AKH-8828

G.hirsutum

2005

41

27.0

30 S

Medium

Table 4: G.hirsutum/ G.arboreum cotton hybrids:

Hybrid

Species

Year of release

Yield (Qt/ha) (Rainfed)

Staple category

Spinning potential (counts)

PKV Hy-2

G.hirsutum

1981

10

Super Medium

40s

PKV Hy-3

G.hirsutum

1993

15

Long

40s

PKV Hy-4

G.hirsutum

1996

20

Extra Long

50s

PKV Hy-5

G.hirsutum

2002

25

Super Medium

60s

PKV DH-1

G.arboreum

2002

15

Medium

30s

2) Cotton Agronomy

  1. Dry sowing of straight varieties was found beneficial as compared to monsoon sowing
  2. For monsoon sowing, 24 th to 25 th meteorological week was optimum period
  3. application of recommended half dose of nitrogen and full dose of phosphorous and potassium as basal and remaining half dose of nitrogen at 30 DAS was identified
  4. optimum spacing of straight varieties and hybrids of G. Hirsutum and G. Arboreum species were identified
  5. For soil moisture conservation opening of furrows at 60 to 70 DAS was effective in increasing the yield
  6. For shallow soil, dwarf and early variety AKH-081 should be sown at 60 X 15 cm spacing for getting higher seed cotton yield
  7. Two protective irrigations, first at flowering and second at boll setting stage were affective to obtained maximum yield
  8. fertilizer doses for recommended varieties / hybrids were identified
  9. Application of FYM @ 5 t/ha with 50 per cent RDF was found suitable for getting maximum seed cotton yield and to improve the soil fertility status
  10. For control of weeds, application of pendamethalin or fluchloralin @ 1.5 kg a. i. per ha. followed by one hoeing after 30 DAS was effective.
  11. A critical period of crop weed competition was 3 to 9 weeks after sowing
  12. Green gram and black gram were identified as better intercrops in cotton
  13. Foliar spraying of 2 per cent urea at flowering and 2 per cent DAP at BDS were identified for better yield

3) Cotton Entomology

  • The yield losses caused by sucking pests and bollworms were estimated 04.61 per cent and 51.30 per cent respectively indicating the importance of cotton bollworms in cotton production
  • For effective control of sucking pest on cotton following insecticides were recommended from time to time, Carbaryl 0.2 % + BHC 0.1 %, Malathion 0.02 % + Endrin 0.04 %, Malathion 0.04 % + Carbaryl 0.1 %, Helitox 0.2 %, Phosphamidon 0.02 %, Monocrotophos 0.03 % and Monocrotophos 0.06 %
  • For effective control of bollworm complex on cotton following insecticides were recommended from time to time, Monocrotophos 0.1 and 1.2 %, Quinolphos 0.05 %, Carbaryl 10 % dust @ 20 kg / ha, Devimol 0.2 %, Phosalone 0.05 %, Endosulfan 4 % dust @ 20 kg /ha, Monocrotophos 0.06 %, Dicrotophos 0.05 %, Tamaron 0.1 %.
  • Spraying of Synthetic pyrethroids alternated with organo phosphates were recommended for the control of cotton bollworm
  • Following Synthetic pyrethroids were recommended the control of cotton bollworm, Cypermethrin 0.01 %, Fenvalerate 0.01 %, Decamethrin 0.0025 %, Permethrin 0.01 %, Flucythrinate 0.005 %, Fenpropathrin 0.015 % and Alphamethrin 25 g a i / ha
  • Spinosad 45 SC 0.01 % was recommended for most effective control of spotted and american bollworm on cotton
  • Beta-cyfluthrin 2.5 EC @ 0.0025 % was recommended for effective control of pink bollworm on cotton
  • The ETL for bollworms was worked out to be 5 per cent damage in green fruiting bodies and this level should be the basis
  • It was recommended that the following plant protection packages should be adopted as eco- friendly and economical for effective integrated management of pests of hybrid cotton:
    • Imidacloprid 70 WS seed treatment @ 10 gm / kg seed before sowing
    • One spray of recommended systemic insecticide for sucking pests based on ETL if required
    • Two releases of Trichogramma chilonis egg parasitoid @ 1.5 lakh per hectare at 45 to 50 and 55 to 60 days after sowing
    • One spray of HaNPV @ 500 LE per hectare
    • One spray of neem seed extract 5 %
    • Need based one or two sprays of recommended insecticides for bollworms based on ET level
  • For effective, efficient and economical integrated pest management in rain fed cotton following revised IPM module was recommended:
    • Thiomethoxam 70 WS seed treatment @ 4.28 gm/kg seed before sowing
    • One spray of Acetamiprid 20 SP @ 15 g a.i. / ha for sucking pests based on ET level
    • Two releases of Trichogramma chilonis egg parasitoid @ 1.5 lakh per hectare at 45 to 50 and 55 to 60 days after germination
    • For bollworms ETL based one spray each of Azadirachtin 300 ppm @ 5 ml / L, Spinosad 45 SC @ 50 g. a.i. / ha and beta-cyfluthrin 2.5 EC @ 0.0025 %
  • EC formulations were reported superior to ULV formulations in reducing the bollworm damage on cotton and recording higher yield per hectare.

 

4) Cotton Pathology

  • The Dahiya disease caused by Ramularia gossypii (speg) cif observed on G. Arboreum, G. Hirsutum, G. Harbaceum, G. Barbadence and wild diploid species of cotton in variable reaction. The disease incident was maximum at 9 th week stage.
  • Under screening of various strains of G. Arboreum and G. Hirsutum group in artificial conditions against grey mildew, none of the strain was found disease free.
  • None of strain was found immune against bacterial blight in G. Arboreum species.
  • Race No. 10 of bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonous Compestris PV Malvacearum (now Xanthomonous oxanopodis PV Malvacearum) was identified on varieties/ hybrids.
  • The disease incidence and intensity of bacterial blight and grey mildew was not differ due to planting pattern (i. e. 60 X 60 cm, 60 X 30 cm and 90 X 20 cm) in PKV Rajat variety
  • The disease incidence and intensity of bacterial blight were not significantly influenced due to various spacing and fertilizer doses in cotton hybrids
  • Seed treatment of 0.1 per cent Carboxine (Vitavax) + 0.3 per cent Thirum is recommended for control of seed borne diseases
  • Foliar spray following fungicides and antibiotics were recommended for control of bacterial blight disease in cotton:
    • Streptocyclin 100 ppm + 0.25 per cent copper oxychloride or Agrimycin 100, 50 ppm in combination with 0.25 cent copper oxychloride or The bacterial culture No. 12 (Areomonas sp. ) and culture No. 51 (Pseudomonas sp.) or 5 per cent neem leaves extract or 5 per cent neem seed extract should be used
  • Foliar spray of wettable sulpher 0.25 per cent or Carbendazium 0.1 per cent was recommended for effective control of grey mildew on cotton
  • Foliar spray of 0.3 per cent copper fungicide or Dithane Z-78 or Monocozeb 0.25 per cent for control of alternaria blight of cotton.

 

Contact:
Sr.Scientist (Cotton)
Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth,
Krishi Nagar
Akola - 444 104
Maharastra  

Phone No.: 0724-258200- Extn.94 258217, 258475(O) 2456447(R)

Fax No.: 0724-58219

Email : akola_aiccip@yahoo.com